Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78. It is a densemalleableductile, highly unreactive, precious, silverish-white transition metal. Its name is derived from the Spanish term platina, meaning “little silver”.[3][4]

Platinum is a member of the platinum group of elements and group 10 of the periodic table of elements. It has six naturally occurring isotopes. It is one of the rarer elements in Earth’s crust, with an average abundance of approximately 5 μg/kg. It occurs in some nickel and copper ores along with some native deposits, mostly in South Africa, which accounts for 80% of the world production. Because of its scarcity in Earth’s crust, only a few hundred tonnes are produced annually, and given its important uses, it is highly valuable and is a major precious metal commodity.

Platinum is one of the least reactive metals. It has remarkable resistance to corrosion, even at high temperatures, and is therefore considered a noble metal. Consequently, platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum. Because it occurs naturally in the alluvial sands of various rivers, it was first used by pre-Columbian South American natives to produce artifacts. It was referenced in European writings as early as 16th century, but it was not until Antonio de Ulloa published a report on a new metal of Colombian origin in 1748 that it began to be investigated by scientists.

Platinum is used in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodesplatinum resistance thermometersdentistry equipment, and jewelry. Being a heavy metal, it leads to health problems upon exposure to its salts; but due to its corrosion resistance, metallic platinum has not been linked to adverse health effects.[5] Compounds containing platinum, such as cisplatinoxaliplatin and carboplatin, are applied in chemotherapy against certain types of cancer


Pure platinum is a lustrous, ductile, and malleable, silver-white metal.[7] Platinum is more ductile than goldsilver or copper, thus being the most ductile of pure metals, but it is less malleable than gold.[8][9] The metal has excellent resistance to corrosion, is stable at high temperatures and has stable electrical properties. Platinum does oxidize, forming PtO2, at 500 °C; this oxide can be easily removed thermally.[10] It reacts vigorously with fluorine at 500 °C (932 °F) to form platinum tetrafluoride.[11] It is also attacked by chlorinebromineiodine, and sulfur. Platinum is insoluble in hydrochloric and nitric acid, but dissolves in hot aqua regia (nitric acid hydrochloride), to form chloroplatinic acid, H2PtCl6.[12]

Its physical characteristics and chemical stability make it useful for industrial applications.[13] Its resistance to wear and tarnish is well suited to use in fine jewellery 


1. May Boost Your Metabolism

The capsaicin in cayenne peppers has metabolism-boosting properties.

It helps increase the amount of heat your body produces, making you burn more calories per day .

It does this through a process called diet-induced thermogenesis, which causes an increase in your metabolism.

In one study, people who ate a breakfast containing capsaicin and medium-chain triglyceride oil burned 51% more calories during that meal, compared to people who had neither for breakfast .

But while capsaicin helps boost metabolism, the overall effect is small.

In another study, people who ate 1 gram of red cayenne pepper only burned 10 more calories over four and a half hours, compared to those who didn’t eat any cayenne pepper.

It’s also important to know that people who regularly consume cayenne peppers don’t continue to reap the same benefits from them over time, as their bodies adapt to the effects.

2. Can Help Reduce Hunger

Interestingly, cayenne peppers may reduce your hunger, helping you eat less and feel fuller for longer.

Many studies show the capsaicin in cayenne peppers helps reduce hunger

How it does this is not completely understood, but one study showed that it reduces the production of the hunger hormone ghrelin

One study showed that people taking capsaicin ate less food throughout the day than those who didn’t take any. Specifically, those taking capsaicin supplements ate 10% less, while those who drank a capsaicin-containing beverage ate 16% less

People in the same study also reported feeling fuller, while eating fewer calories.

3. May Lower Blood Pressure

High blood pressure is a huge health risk worldwide. In fact, over 40% of adults over 25 have high blood pressure.

Interestingly, animal studies have shown that the capsaicin in cayenne peppers may reduce high blood pressure.

One study in mice with high blood pressure showed that the long-term consumption of dietary spices containing capsaicin helped reduce blood pressure .

Another study showed that capsaicin helped relax blood vessels in pigs, leading to lower blood pressure .

It’s important to note that the findings above are based on animals, and capsaicin’s effects may differ in humans. It is best to take these findings with a grain of salT.

4. May Aid Digestive Health

Dietary spices and their active components may provide many benefits for your stomach.

For example, cayenne pepper may help boost the stomach’s defense against infections, increase digestive fluid production and help deliver enzymes to the stomach, aiding digestion .

It does this by stimulating nerves in the stomach that signal for protection against injury .

While some believe that spicy food may cause stomach ulcers, a review paper has shown that the capsaicin in cayenne peppers may actually help reduce the risk of stomach ulcers

5. May Help Relieve Pain

Capsaicin has potent pain-relieving properties when applied to the skin in a cream.

This is because capsaicin helps reduce the amount of substance P, a neuropeptide produced by the body that travels to the brain to signal pain .

When less substance P is produced, pain signals can no longer reach the brain, and feelings of pain decrease .

Capsaicin is available as a skin cream and is often recommended for the following conditions

  • Joint and muscle pain
  • Lower back pain
  • Pain after surgery
  • Pain from nerve conditions like shingles

Additionally, it’s important to note that capsaicin cream should not be applied to an open wound or broken skin.

6. May Improve Psoriasis

Autoimmune diseases are conditions in which your body attacks itself.

Psoriasis is an example of an autoimmune disease that appears as patches of red, itchy and scaly skin.

Currently, there is no cure for psoriasis. However, capsaicin creams can help relieve itching and improve the appearance of psoriasis-affected areas).

One study showed that psoriasis patients treated with capsaicin cream had significantly reduced scaling, redness and patchiness than patients who received a placebo cream .

It’s believed that substance P plays a role in psoriasis. As mentioned previously, capsaicin helps reduce the amount of substance P produced by your body.

7. May Reduce Cancer Risk

Cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrollable cell growth.

The capsaicin in cayenne peppers shows promise in reducing the risk of cancer. It may do this by attacking many different pathways in the cancer cell growth process.

In fact, studies have shown that capsaicin can slow the growth of cancer cells and even cause cell death for many different types of cancer, including prostate, pancreatic and skin cancer.

While capsaicin’s effects on cancer cells seem promising, it’s important to note that the current findings are based on laboratory and animal studies.

Capsaicin’s effects on cancer in humans has not yet been studied, so it’s wise to take this information with a grain of salt.

SUMMARY:Capsaicin has shown promise in cancer research, although human studies are needed before any conclusions can be made.

8. Easy to Add to Your Diet

Cayenne pepper is easy to incorporate into your diet. It comes in different forms, including as a whole food, spice and supplement.

A wide selection is available on Amazon.

You can add a pinch of cayenne pepper spice to many of your favorite foods, such as eggs, homemade fries and even marinades.

Alternatively, you could slice whole cayenne peppers and add them to salads.

If you haven’t eaten a cayenne pepper before, be sure to do a small taste test to see if you can tolerate the heat, as they are very spicy.

Risks and Precautions

Cayenne peppers are generally recognized as safe to eat.

However, eating too much cayenne pepper in one sitting may give you a stomach ache and make you feel sick.

If you are taking medications for high blood pressure, such as ACE inhibitors, check with your doctor before trying capsaicin cream, as it may cause coughing.

Also, if you take a blood thinner like warfarin, check with your doctor before trying cayenne peppers since they may increase your risk of bleeding.

Lastly, when applying capsaicin cream to your skin, do not apply it to an open wound or broken skiN.

The Bottom Line

Cayenne peppers may have many health benefits that are the result of their active component, capsaicin.

They may reduce your appetite and help lower blood pressure, among many other benefits.

If you’re worried that cayenne peppers may interact with your current medication, it’s best to check with your doctor.

For most people, cayenne peppers are a great way to add a kick to your diet.

Healthline and our partners may receive a portion of the revenues if you make a purchase using a link above

.1235 N LOOP 336 WEST CONROE TX 77301

benefits of Green Apples

1. High Fiber Content

It contains a lot of fiber, which helps clean the system and increases metabolism. This, therefore, helps in free bowel movement. It is always advisable to eat an apple with its skin on. The cleaner your intestine and systems are , the happier and healthier you will be.

2. Mineral

It contains, a number of minerals – iron, zinc, copper, manganese, potassium, etc. which are trace minerals and are a must for human health and well-being. The iron in apples is a trace element and it helps in raising the levels of blood oxygen and helps in increased metabolic rate

3. Low in Fat Content

This is a great food when it comes to weight watchers. People on diet and/or are regular gym goers should and must include one apple in their every day diet. It also collects the fats in the blood vessels and helps in maintaining proper blood flow to the heart preventing the chances of strokes.

4. Prevents Skin Cancer

It contains Vitamin C that helps in preventing skin cells damage by free radicals and thus reduces the chances of skin cancer.

5. Rich In Anti-Oxidants

It contains anti-oxidants which help in cell re-building and cell rejuvenation. This also helps you in maintaining healthy and glowing skin. The antioxidants also protect your liver and ensure its proper functioning.

6. Prevents Alzheimer’s

Having an apple every day prevents chances of old-age neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s.

7. Prevents Asthma

Taking apple juice regularly can prevent chances of asthma which is a hypersensitive allergic disorder.

8. Prevents Diabetes

Apples prevent diabetes. It is a must have for diabetics.

9. Rich In Vitamin A,B and C

Green apples are rich in Vitamins A, B and C, so apart from protecting the skin from harmful effects of free radicals; it also helps one in maintaining glowing skin from inside.

10. A Natural Detoxifier

Packed with a good dose of fiber, this green juice keeps your liver, kidney, and digestive system free from toxins and harmful elements . The presence of fiber also ensures that you are free of constipation issues. The high fiber content in this juice also helps in cutting down the risk of developing colon cancer.

11. Gives Your Metabolic Rate A Boost

This juice is a treasure trove of a wide variety of minerals, including copper, iron, potassium, and manganese. All these elements play a major role in keeping you in good health. Iron, especially, is known to aid in better absorption of oxygen, which in turn boosts the metabolic rate of your body .

12. Good For Your Liver

Along with being a natural detoxifying agent, green apple juice is also known to possess antioxidants in good quantities. These antioxidants actually prevent the free radicals from damaging the liver. This, in turn, ensures that your liver functions properly, while keeping it safe from various hepatic conditions.

13. Helps To Lose Weight

This green hued drink makes a filling snack in between your meals . Packed with fiber and low on fats, sugar, and sodium, green apple juice is known to restrict hunger pangs. Plus, it improves the calorie burning potential, which helps you to achieve your weight loss goals in a tasty way.

14. Protects You From Inflammatory Conditions

Green apple juice, as mentioned above, contains a good dose of antioxidants. These antioxidants actually help in safeguarding your body from oxidative stress-induced painful inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatism and arthritis. Studies suggest that senior citizens who suffer from such inflammatory conditions should include green apple juice in their diet .

15. Good For Your Lungs

Studies suggest that regular use of green apple juice can cut down the risk associated with the onset of asthma by a good 23% . People who are regular smokers can also rely on this fresh delight to safeguard themselves from obstructive pulmonary diseases.

16. Good For Your Vision

Green apple juice is a source of various vitamins. The Vitamin A present in this juice is known to possess the potential to strengthen and improve your vision.

17. Good For Blood Clotting

This green juice is a potential source of Vitamin K, the element that helps the blood to coagulate and clot . People who drink this juice possess a better wound repairing and healing potential. Women, who have extremely heavy periods, can also use this drink to bring the bleeding under control.

18. Healthy Strong Bones

Green apple juice has a rich presence of calcium, which is essential for strengthening the bones and teeth and keeping them healthy . Women, especially, in their menopause, should include this drink in their diet to prevent osteoporosis.

Skin Benefits Of Green Apples

Green apple is an excellent beauty enhancer. Lots of skin care and hair care benefits are associated with green apples.

19. Anti-Aging Ingredient

The antioxidants, such as Vitamin A, Vitamin C, and phenols present in green apple juice play a major in delaying premature aging. Free radicals present in the body cause the early onset of wrinkles, fine lines, and dark spots. Regular use of this antioxidant rich drink can help the body fight these free radicals and control or even better, eliminate the damages

20. Improves Skin Texture

A face mask involving the use of green apple can deeply moisturize your skin and help to eliminate the appearance of wrinkles while improving the overall texture of your skin. You can take the help of green apple juice to improve the hydration levels of your skin. It can either be consumed or even be used as a face wash to prevent the skin from drying out.

21. Nourishes the Skin

Owing to its dense vitamin content, green apple helps in maintaining your skin and has great whitening and nourishing effects on your complexion. Packed with assorted vitamins and minerals, you can incorporate this drink into your skin care regimen. The collagen and elastin proteins get a boost, which in turn, improves your complexion by nourishing and healing the skin from deep within

22. Prevents Skin Diseases

Many a time, lack of nourishment leaves the skin at the risk of various skin disorders, including eczema and cancer. Green apple juice ensures that the skin gets the necessary levels of nourishment. It also offers protection from various skin issues.

23. Controls & Prevents Pimple Eruptions

Green apple is a highly effective anti-acne treatment as well. Regular consumption of green apple help you control and prevent pimple eruptions.

24. Eliminates Dark Eye Circles

The deep brown circles along with puffiness around your eyes are signs of your skin getting older . Topical application of fresh apple juice as well as internal consumption is known to have a positive impact on these undesirable changes.

Hair Benefits Of Green Apples:

Green apple is not only good for our skin but for our hair as well. Here we have a few of the benefits of green apples for your hair listed for you.

25. Cures Dandruff

A paste created with the leaves and skin of green apple works wonders to fix dandruff. You should use this paste as a shampoo. Green apple juice also has the same effects if massaged regularly onto the scalp.

26. Enhances Hair Growth

Packed with a tempting array of vitamins and minerals, green apple juice is a potential natural remedy for strengthening your tresses. Along with that, it also makes sure that your hair fall is under control. Plus, regular use of this juice is also known to promote hair growth. In short, using green apple juice could help you show off long, strong, and lush hair


Merengue was first mentioned in the mid 19th century with the earliest documented evidence being newspaper articles. Some of the articles inform about a “lascivious” dance, and also highlight Merengue displacing the Tumba. The genre had originated within the rural, northern valley region around the city of Santiago called the Cibao. It later spread throughout the country and became popular among the urban population.[4]

Anecdotal evidence suggests that one of the first merengue song was written in 1844, the year of the Dominican Republic’s Independence from Haiti. The song was written as a satire, to mock one Thomas Torres who had deserted his troops in the Battle of Talanquera. The lyrics of the alleged first merengue as follows:

Thomas huyó con la bandera
Thomas huyó de Talanquera
Si hubiera sido yo, no me habría huido,
Thomas huyó con la bandera

Thomas fled with the flag
Thomas fled from Talanquera
If it had been I, I wouldn’t have fled,
Thomas fled with the flag

This account first surfaced in 1927, as the merengue was beginning to curry favor as an emblem of national identity. However, the song’s role as the first emergence of merengue has been often refuted, being cited as a patriotic song or ballad instead.[5]

The oldest form of Merengue was typically played on stringed instruments. When the accordion came to the island in the 1880s, introduced by German traders, it quickly became the primary instrument, and to this day is still the instrument of choice in Merengue tipico. Later on, the piano and brass instruments were introduced to the genre.

Merengue is a type of music and dance originating in the Dominican Republic, which has become a very popular genre throughout Latin America, and also in several major cities in the United States which have Hispanic communities.[2]

Merengue was first mentioned around the middle of the 19th century and has locally been very popular since then. The genre was later promoted even more by Rafael Trujillo, the dictator from 1930 to 1961, who turned it into the country’s national music and dance style. In the United States it was first popularized by New York-based groups and bandleaders like Rafael Petiton Guzman, beginning in the 1930s, and Angel Viloria y su Conjunto Típico Cibaeño in the 1950s. It was during the Trujillo era that the merengue “Compadre Pedro Juan”, by Luis Alberti, became an international hit and standardized the 2-part form of the merengue.[3]

Internationally known merengue singers and groups include Fernando VillalonaJuan Luis GuerraCarlos Manuel El ZafiroEddy HerreraToño RosarioLos Hermanos Rosario, Los Toros Band, Sergio VargasWilfrido VargasJohnny VenturaBonny CepedaGrupo RanaMiriam Cruz & Las Chicas Del Can, Joseito Mateo, Luis Ovalles, the aforementioned Angel Viloria, El Cieguito de Nagua, Kinito Mendez, Ravel, Jossie Esteban y la Patrulla 15Pochy y su CocobandCuco Valoy, The Freddy Kenton Orquestra, Ramón Orlando, Sandy Reyes, July Mateo, Rasputin, Peter Cruz, Alex Bueno, Aramis Camilo, Jochy Hernández, Dioni Fernandez, The New York Band, Anibal Bravo, Conjunto Quisqueya, Olga TañónGisselleHenry Hierro y La Gran Manzana and GrupomaníaMilly Quezada is known as the Queen of Merengue. The popularity of Merengue is growing fast in Venezuela. Venezuelan merengueros include Roberto Antonio, Miguel Moly, Natusha, Porfi JiménezBillo’s Caracas Boys, and Los Melodicos. Merengue is also popular in the coastal city of Guayaquil in Ecuador. The merengue produced in New York City has become very popular among the lovers of this rhythm. Some of the New Yorkers who produce this new merengue sound are Omega, Los Ficos, Los Gambinos, Ala Jaza, Alberto Flash, Mala Fe, Henry Jimenez, Aybar. 1235 N LOOP 336 WEST @I45


Memorial day

The practice of decorating soldiers’ graves with flowers is an ancient custom.[5] Soldiers’ graves were decorated in the U.S. before[6] and during the American Civil War.

Some believe that an annual cemetery decoration practice began before the American Civil War and thus may reflect the real origin of the “memorial day” idea.[7] Annual Decoration Days for particular cemeteries are still held on a Sunday in late spring or early summer in some rural areas of the American South, notably in the mountain areas. In cases involving a family graveyard where remote ancestors as well as those who were deceased more recently are buried, this may take on the character of an extended family reunion to which some people travel hundreds of miles. People gather, put flowers on graves and renew contacts with relatives and others. There often is a religious service and a picnic-like “dinner on the grounds,” the traditional term for a potluck meal at a church.[7]

On June 3, 1861, Warrenton, Virginia was the location of the first Civil War soldier’s grave ever to be decorated, according to a Richmond Times-Dispatch newspaper article in 1906.[8] In 1862, women in Savannah, Georgia decorated Confederate soldiers’ graves according to the Savannah Republican.[9] The 1863 cemetery dedication at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, was a ceremony of commemoration at the graves of dead soldiers. On July 4, 1864, ladies decorated soldiers’ graves according to local historians in Boalsburg, Pennsylvania.[10] and Boalsburg promotes itself as the birthplace of Memorial Day.[11]

In April 1865, following President Abraham Lincoln’s assassination, commemorations were ubiquitous. The more than 600,000 soldiers of both sides who died in the Civil War meant that burial and memorialization took on new cultural significance. Under the leadership of women during the war, an increasingly formal practice of decorating graves had taken shape. In 1865, the federal government began creating national military cemeteries for the Union war dead.[12]

On May 1, 1865, in Charleston, South Carolina, recently freed African-Americans held a parade of 10,000 people to honor 257 dead Union Soldiers, whose remains they had reburied from a mass grave in a Confederate prison camp.[13]Historian David W. Blight discovered contemporary news reports of this forgotten incident in the Charleston Daily Courier and the New-York Tribune. Blight claimed that “African Americans invented Memorial Day in Charleston, South Carolina”,[14] In 2012, Blight stated that he “has no evidence” that the event in Charleston inspired the establishment of Memorial Day across the country.[15]

In 1868, copying a southern annual observance,[16] General John A. Logan of the Grand Army of the Republic, an organization of Union veterans founded in Decatur, Illinois, established Decoration Day as a time for the nation to decorate the graves of the Union war dead with flowers.[17] By the 20th century, various Union and Confederate memorial traditions, celebrated on different days, merged, and Memorial Day eventually extended to honor all Americans who died while in the military service.[1]

On May 26, 1966, President Lyndon B. Johnson designated an “official” birthplace of the holiday by signing the presidential proclamation naming Waterloo, New York, as the holder of the title. This action followed House Concurrent Resolution 587, in which the 89th Congress had officially recognized that the patriotic tradition of observing Memorial Day had begun one hundred years prior in Waterloo, New York.[18] The village credits druggist Henry C. Welles and county clerk John B. Murray as the founders of the holiday. Scholars have determined that the Waterloo account is a myth.[19] Snopes and Live Science also discredit the Waterloo account.[20][21]

In the North

On May 5, 1868, General John A. Logan issued a proclamation calling for “Decoration Day” to be observed annually and nationwide; he was commander-in-chief of the Grand Army of the Republic, an organization of and for Union Civil War veterans.[7] With his proclamation, Logan adopted the Memorial Day practice that had begun in the Southern states three years earlier.[22][23][24]

The first northern Memorial Day was observed on May 30, 1868. One author claims that the date was chosen because it was not the anniversary of any particular battle.[25] According to a White House address in 2010, the date was chosen as the optimal date for flowers to be in bloom in the North.[26]

Memorial Day, Boston by Henry Sandham

The northern states quickly adopted the holiday. In 1868, memorial events were held in 183 cemeteries in 27 states, and 336 in 1869.[27] In 1871, Michigan made “Decoration Day” an official state holiday and by 1890, every northern state had followed suit. There was no standard program for the ceremonies, but they were typically sponsored by the Women’s Relief Corps, the women’s auxiliary of the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR), which had 100,000 members. By 1870, the remains of nearly 300,000 Union dead had been reinterred in 73 national cemeteries, located near major battlefields and thus mainly in the South. The most famous are Gettysburg National Cemetery in Pennsylvania and Arlington National Cemetery, near Washington, D.C.[28]

Memorial Day speeches became an occasion for veterans, politicians, and ministers to commemorate the Civil War and, at first, to rehash the “atrocities” of the enemy. They mixed religion and celebratory nationalism for the people to make sense of their history in terms of sacrifice for a better nation. People of all religious beliefs joined together and the point was often made that the German and Irish soldiers had become true Americans in the “baptism of blood” on the battlefield.[29]

Since 1868 Doylestown, Pennsylvania, has held annual Memorial Day parades which it claims to be the nation’s oldest continuously running. However, the Memorial Day parade in Rochester, Wisconsin, predates Doylestown’s by one year.[30][31]

By the 1880s, ceremonies were becoming quite similar as the GAR provided handbooks that presented specific procedures, poems, and Bible verses for local post commanders to utilize in planning the local event. Historian Stuart McConnell reports:

on the day itself, the post assembled and marched to the local cemetery to decorate the graves of the fallen, an enterprise meticulously organized months in advance to assure that none were missed. Finally came a simple and subdued graveyard service involving prayers, short patriotic speeches, and music…and at the end perhaps a rifle salute.[32]



Soursop, Annona muricata.jpg
A spiky green fruit growing on a tree
Soursop fruit on its tree
Scientific classificatione
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Magnoliids
Order: Magnoliales
Family: Annonaceae
Genus: Annona
Species: A. muricata
Binomial name
Annona muricata
Annona macrocarpa Wercklé
Annona crassiflora Mart.[1]
Guanabanus muricatus M.Gómez
Guanabanus muricatus (L.) M.Gómez[2]
Annona bonplandiana Kunth
Annona cearensis Barb. Rodr.
Annona muricata Vell.[3]

A. muricata flower

Soursop fruit on a tree

Soursop (also graviolacustard apple, and in Latin Americaguanábana) is the fruit of Annona muricata, a broadleaf, flowering, evergreen tree.[4][5] The exact origin is unknown; it is native to the tropical regions of the Americasand is widely propagated.[6] It is in the same genus, Annona, as cherimoya and is in the Annonaceae family.

The soursop is adapted to areas of high humidity and relatively warm winters; temperatures below 5 °C (41 °F) will cause damage to leaves and small branches, and temperatures below 3 °C (37 °F) can be fatal. The fruit becomes dry and is no longer good for concentrate.

With aroma similar to pineapple,[5] the flavor of the fruit has been described as a combination of strawberries and apple, and sour citrus flavor notes, contrasting with an underlying creamy texture reminiscent of coconut or banana.

Soursop is widely promoted (sometimes as “graviola”) as an alternative cancer treatment, but there is no medical evidence it is effective for treating cancer or any disease.

The flesh of the fruit consists of an edible, white pulp, some fiber, and a core of indigestible black seeds. The pulp is also used to make fruit nectar, smoothies, fruit juice drinks, as well as candies, sorbets, and ice cream flavorings.[4][5]

Due to the fruit’s widespread cultivation and popularity in parts of Latin America, the Caribbean, Africa, Southeast Asia and the Pacific, soursop and its derivative products are consumed across the world, also via branded food and beverage products available in many countries, including Brazil, Mexico, Canada, the United States, the UK, Ireland and Continental Europe, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore and Vietnam.

In Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, and Harar (Ethiopia), it is a common fruit, often used for dessert as the only ingredient, or as an agua fresca beverage; in Colombia and Venezuela, it is a fruit for juices, mixed with milk. In Cuba, a thick smoothie made of soursop pulp, milk and cane sugar goes by the name of champola. Ice cream and fruit bars made of soursop are common.[4][5] The seeds are normally left in the preparation, and removed while consuming, unless a blender is used for processing.

In Indonesiadodol sirsak, a sweetmeat, is made by boiling soursop pulp in water and adding sugar until the mixture hardens. Soursop is also a common ingredient for making fresh fruit juices that are sold by street food vendors. In the Philippines, it is called guyabano, derived from the Spanish guanábana, and is eaten ripe, or used to make juices, smoothies, or ice cream. Sometimes, they use the leaf in tenderizing meat. In Vietnam, this fruit is called mãng cầu Xiêm (Siamese Soursop) in the south, or mãng cầu (Soursop) in the north, and is used to make smoothies, or eaten as is. In Cambodia, this fruit is called tearb barung, literally “western custard-apple fruit.” In Malaysia, it is known in Malayas durian belanda and in East Malaysia, specifically among the Dusun people of Sabah, it is locally known as lampun. Popularly, it is eaten raw when it ripens, or used as one of the ingredients in Ais Kacang or Ais Batu Campur. Usually the fruits are taken from the tree when they mature and left to ripen in a dark corner, whereafter they will be eaten when they are fully ripe. It has a white flower with a very pleasing scent, especially in the morning. While for people in Brunei Darussalam this fruit is popularly known as “Durian Salat”, widely available and easily planted.

The Hunger project

The Hunger Project is an organization committed to the sustainable end of world hunger. It has ongoing programs in Africa, Asia and Latin America, where it implements programs aimed at mobilizing rural grassroots communities to achieve sustainable progress in healtheducationnutrition and family income.

In Africa, THP implements what it calls “the Epicenter strategy”, organizing clusters of 10 to 15 villages to construct community centers, partner with local government agencies and community-based organizations, and establish and manage their own programs for microfinance, improved agriculture, food-processing, income-generation, adult literacy, food security, and primary health-care (including the prevention of HIV/AIDS).

In India, THP facilitates the mobilization and training of elected women panchayat leaders. In Bangladesh, THP conducts trainings focused on gender issues and leadership for local leaders who then organize local meetings, lead workshops and initiate campaigns against early marriage and dowry, malnutrition, maternal and child mortality, gender discrimination, and inequality, illiteracy and corruption. In Latin America, THP works with communities to overcome economic marginalization, particularly that of the indigenous women.

Dionne Warwick represented the charity on the US TV series The Celebrity Apprentice in Season 11 (which was aired in early 2011) and was fired before any money was made for donation. She left the show abruptly.

Image result for hunger project

n Uganda, The Hunger Project (THP) employs measures to facilitate the mobilization and growth of capital, as well as creating partnerships to alleviate food and health issues.

In 2009, THP-Uganda implemented the Microfinance program to improve food security and reduce poverty. The Microfinance program is a training, savings and credit program; enabling the targeted poor who traditionally lack access to banking and related services to get small loans with the purpose of engaging in income-generating activities.

The program consists of 2 phases: Direct Credit and Rural Bank.

A Revolving Loan Fund (RLF) of about US$20,000 is allocated to a center, with the center’s community electing its own people into the loan committee to manage the RLF. The funds go through a cycle of disbursement to the community, repayment of the loans from community members, and disbursement again. Through this process, the funds grow via accumulated interest.

After 4 to 5 years into the Direct Credit phase, if the microfinance operation in the community meets the level of criteria set by the government, the operation can apply to evolve into a savings and credit cooperative (Rural bank). All members of the community may deposit savings and access credit from the Rural Bank. The THP stops giving assistance to the Rural Bank when it becomes operationally self-sufficient in the next 2 years.

The Rural Bank is able to mobilise the community’s wealth to create more wealth, as well as meeting its aim of providing the community with sustainable access to savings and credit facilities . In practice, the program saw success as THP’s Iganga Epicenter Rural Bank in Uganda was named the “Best SACCO (Savings and Credit Cooperative) of 2009” by the District Commercial Office of the Ministry of Trade, Tourism and Industry.

THP’s contributions to the whole operation include the gifting of RLF to start the whole process, payment of the Rural bank manager’s salary for the first 2 years to secure full compliance, and assistance in the preparation of reports for the appropriate government office.

Additionally, with the aim of solving food and health issues, THP has initiated a partnership with Catholic Relief Services (CRS) to address the adverse impact of disease on crops that ultimately threaten food security. The staple food crop of Uganda is cassava, of which production is greatly constrained by pests and diseases, especially the African cassava mosaic virus. The partnership enabled the education of Ugandan farmers through grants of laptops with inbuilt training courses on group management, cassava multiplication, pests and diseases. Farmers were also taught on and given access to disease-free high-yielding cassava variety MH97/2961.This arrangement has improved household incomes and food security for a total of 1,455 partners in the last three years.

The Hunger Project raises funds, via contributions, in Australia, Canada, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States. According to its online report retrieved February 2007, Charity Navigator reports that The Hunger Project’s program costs in FY2005 were 80.2% of expenses, and administrative and fundraising costs were 19.8%. reports that as of December 2006, the Project’s program expenses were 77% of total, and administrative and fundraising costs 23% and meets all of its standards. Charity Navigator gives The Hunger Project four out of four stars,and the American Institute of Philanthropy gives it an A- rating.

The Hunger Project met the standards to be listed on the 2004 Combined Federal Campaign National List and the Commonwealth of Virginia 2005 Charity Application.

1235 N Loop 336 West Conroe  Tx 77301

 Alzheimer’s Association

The Alzheimer’s Association was founded by Jerome H. Stone with the help of several family members in Chicago, Illinois and incorporated in April 10, 1980 as the Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association, Inc. and is a non-profit American volunteer health organization which focuses on care, support and research for Alzheimer’s disease. The Alzheimer’s Association is the largest non-profit funder of Alzheimer’s disease research. The organization has chapters and communities across the nation, with its national office located in Chicago and the public policy office in Washington D.C. Its mission is “to eliminate Alzheimer’s disease through the advancement of research; to provide and enhance care and support for all affected; and to reduce the risk of dementia through the promotion of brain health.

Jerome H. Stone founded the Alzheimer’s Association with the help of several family support groups after meeting with the National Institute on Aging in 1979. Jerome Stone Alzheimer’s research efforts began in 1970 when his wife was first diagnosed with the disease. During the 1970’s there was very few information available about the Alzheimer’s disease. Only a few support groups existed at the time.  Through his research efforts he joined with seven independent groups who wanted to form a national organization. The groups consisted of researchers, physicians, caregivers and other humanitarians. Together they held their first official meeting on December 4,1979 to discuss solutions for the need for Alzheimer’s information, care, and cure for the disease. 

The Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association was incorporated on April 10, 1980. In that year, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) invested $13 million in Alzheimer’s disease research. In 1982, President Ronald Reagan designated the first National Alzheimer’s Disease Awareness Week. With sub-chapters being founded nationwide, the organization launched its own research programs.

Rita Hayworth Galas

In 1980 actress and dancer Rita Hayworth was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease, which contributed to her death in 1987 at the age of 68. The public disclosure and discussion of her illness drew international attention to Alzheimer’s disease, a disease that had been virtually forgotten by the medical community since its discovery in 1906, and helped to greatly increase public and private funding for Alzheimer’s disease research. The Rita Hayworth Gala, a benefit for the Alzheimer’s Association, is held annually in Chicago and New York City.The program was founded in May 1985 by Princess Yasmin Aga Khan, in honor of her mother.

A Night at Sardi’s

Started in 1992 by Laurie Burrows Grad in memory of her father writer/director and Pulitzer Prize winner Abe Burrows who died from Alzheimer’s disease, A Night at Sardi’s was an evening of entertainment that has raised over $28 million to address this rapidly growing health crisis. The benefit originally chaired by Burrows Grad and her husband, Peter Grad, was held for the last time on March 9, 2016, and raised over 1.5 million dollars. This 24th and final “A Night at Sardi’s” was chaired by Burrows Grad, James Burrows and Nicholas Grad, honoring and paying tribute to Laurie’s late husband with the Philanthropy Award.

Blondes vs. Brunettes/RivALZ

Blondes vs. Brunettes Powderpuff football games were started by Sara Allen Abbott whose father, Texas State Representative Joseph Hugh Allen, died of Alzheimer’s disease in 2008. Looking for a way to raise funds for the Alzheimer’s Association, Abbott organized a powder puff football game in tribute to her father, a lifelong football fan. The game is now played in 16 cities and Abbott has received national recognition for her efforts in raising over $2 million for the Alzheimer’s Association.

In 2014, “Blondes vs. Brunettes” grew into “RivALZ”.

Advocacy Forum

The Alzheimer’s Association Advocacy Forum is an annual gathering that takes place in the spring in Washington D.C. The multi-day event includes training sessions, celebrity guests, banquets, multi-media experiences and topical presentations focusing on Alzheimer’s disease policy-making and legislation. The feature of the event is a lobby day during which time attendees conduct meetings with members of Congress on Capitol Hill. Past guest speakers and attendees include Seth RogenSoleil Moon-FryeDavid Hyde PierceLisa Genova, political commentators Frank Luntz and Charlie Cook and members of Congress.

Paint the Night Purple

This is an annual winter fundraiser that is hosted by the Alzheimer’s Association Illinois Junior Board. It brings together young professionals from across Chicago, this event includes live entertainment, and a silent auction, where all proceeds are gifted back to the charity. Just recently ending their 5th annual fundraiser, this is the Junior Board’s largest and longest running fundraiser.

Photo from Walk to End Alzheimer’s in Lansing, Michigan.

Walk to End Alzheimer’s

The Walk to End Alzheimer’s is the world’s largest event, hosted by The Alzheimer’s Association, to bring awareness to Alzheimer’s care. This even is held once a year in over 600 communities nationwide, brings together people of different ages, backgrounds and

relationships to the disease to join the battle to fight against the disease.

In 2000, the Alzheimer’s Association anticipated establishing and running the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference (AAIC) and has made improvements in attendance, conceptual submissions and research-based presentations, and media relationships. The purpose of the AAIC is to join researchers together from all around the globe to report and converse about innovative research and data on the source, findings, cure, and prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and associated illnesses. The AAIC is held annually and is the world’s only largest forum for sharing research regarding the dementia research community.

They create thousands of nonconcrete submissions and hold more than 2,000 scientific meetings to touch the millions of people affected by Alzheimer’s with the use of print newspapers, radio broadcasting, and television newscast exposure. The AAIC has gained news coverage from ABC, the BBC, CBS, CNN, NBC, the Associated Press, Reuters, Good Morning America, The Wall Street JournalThe Washington PostUSA Today, and the customs of the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference on Alzheimer’s Disease (ICAD), the AAIC attempts to gather authority figures from more than 70 different countries to network and converse the most current dementia research outcomes and ideas in 2018.

Established in 2010, the Alzheimer’s Impact Movement (AIM) is a registered 501 advocacy organization that works in partnership with the Alzheimer’s Association.AIM is a membership organization that is non-partisan, non-profit, and their objective is to make Alzheimer’s disease a national importance. AIM supports policies designed to find an end to Alzheimer’s disease through improved investments in research, enhanced care and support, and the advancement of methods designed to decrease the chance of developing dementia.AIM and the Alzheimer’s Association offers a 24/7 helpline to provide advice, information, and support for those living with Alzheimer’s disease, their caretakers, medical experts, and the community. AIM is a sister organization of the Alzheimer’s Association, which has a voluntary and non-partisan political action committee, AIMPAC. AIMPAC is the political side of AIM, their goal is to inform members of Congress about the serious problems of Alzheimer’s disease with the help of the main concerns of the Alzheimer’s Association.

During the 2015 and 2016 United States Presidential primary season, AIM supporters pressured each of the candidates for their individual ideas to end Alzheimer’s. In the 2016 Presidential Election, AIM and the Alzheimer’s Association distributed a national voter survey and results showed that 73 million voters in America knew someone close to them with Alzheimer’s disease.

When an organization is affiliated with the national Alzheimer’s Association, they become responsible for paying dues. The dues go to the national chapter (Alzheimer’s Association of Chicago). The Alzheimer’s Association of Chicago can take up for 40% of revenue per year from each chapter affiliated with them.Currently, the funding for Alzheimer’s research at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is below $1.4 billion each year.Due to charitable funding, the Alzheimer’s Association International Research Grant Program, has devoted over $385 million dollars to over 2,500 best-of-field grant propositions, creating field-changing improvements. The Alzheimer’s Association has funded more than $375 million dollars in committed research assignments around the world and given $12 million to researchers in Illinois.

In 2015, it was in the talks for over 56 independent Alzheimer’s related associations would come together under one roof- that roof being of The Alzheimer’s Association of Chicago. The Alzheimer’s Association of Chicago is the home base for a majority of Alzheimer’s related charities across the nation. The Alzheimer’s Association of Chicago has had reoccurring speculations of issues pertaining to money allocation. This has been picked up by local Chicago news sources like the Chicago Tribune. A possible disaffiliation with national chapter might be beneficial for its growth. It would essentially be breaking apart from itself into two separate organizations- one local and one national.The local would have to start fresh, unlike the San Dieigo association that was an already established stand alone association that became affiliated to its national peer.

Image result for alzheimer association

Since the Alzheimer’s Association was founded the number of chapters has consolidated from 221 chapters in 1993 to 56 independent chapters now. Within those 56 chapters only 27 of them have agreed to unify under the national association. Prior to the vote, there had been previous chapters that chose to breakaway from the national association due to the high fees required from the national association. North Carolina’s chapter was one of four chapters that had departed in the past nine years. The chapter’s executive director, Alice Watkins, admitted that following the breakaway, the chapter had faced trouble fundraising but has since begun to settle overall making the breakaway the right decision for the charter to make. Since spending on Alzheimer’s research has decreased at the national level despite the increase of money acquired through the high fees from independent chapters, the remaining independent chapters remain resistant to consolidate. The chapters have no real input about how the money is used through the consolidation plan, and are only given advisory roles at the national level despite being active participants in the fundraising.

The Alzheimer’s Association has partaken in many opportunities to assist in diagnosing and treating Alzheimer’s Disease. In 1987 the Alzheimer’s Association teamed up with the NIA and Warner-Lambert Pharmaceutical Company (now known as Pfizer) and helped launch and recruit participants for clinical trials of the first drug to specifically target symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease. In 1995, the Alzheimer’s Association funded the development of a mouse model of a rare neurodegenerative disorder, thus laying down the technical foundation for Alzheimer’s mouse models. In 2003, the Alzheimer’s Association partnered with the NIA in finding participants for the National Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Study in order to identify Alzheimer’s risk in genes.

In 2004, researchers shared their first findings on an imaging agent called Pittsburg Compound B (PIB), a major potential breakthrough in disease monitoring and early detection that the Alzheimer’s Association provided significant support to. In that same year, the Alzheimer’s Association joined-in to sponsor the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, a nationwide study that aims to create a standardized method for obtaining and interpreting brain images.In 2005, the Alzheimer’s Association launched “Alzheimer’s & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association in hopes to further support a worldwide, interdisciplinary exchange within the Alzheimer’s research community.In 2008, in hopes to maintain or improve the cognitive performance of adults, the Alzheimer’s Association and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched the Healthy Brain Initiative. In that same year, the Alzheimer’s Association created the International Society to Advance Alzheimer’s Research and Treatment (ISTAART). In 2011, three workgroups brought together by the Alzheimer’s Association and the NIA updated the information and guidelines for diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease and came up with research criteria to define a new preclinical stage


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Conroe  TX 77301