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horoscope is an astrological chart or diagram representing the positions of the SunMoonplanetsastrological aspects and sensitive angles at the time of an event, such as the moment of a person’s birth. The word horoscope is derived from Greek words hõra and scopos meaning “time” and “observer” (horoskopos, pl. horoskopoi, or “marker(s) of the hour”). Other commonly used names for the horoscope in English include natal chartastrological chartastro-chartcelestial mapsky-mapstar-chartcosmogramvitasphereradical chartradixchart wheel or simply chart. It is used as a method of divination regarding events relating to the point in time it represents, and it forms the basis of the horoscopic traditions of astrology.

In common usage, horoscope often refers to an astrologer‘s interpretation, usually based on a system of solar Sun sign astrology; based strictly on the position of the Sun at the time of birth, or on the calendar significance of an event, as in Chinese astrology. In particular, many newspapers and magazines carry predictive columns, written in prose that may be written more for increasing readership than tied directly to the Sun or other aspects of the solar system, allegedly based on celestial influences in relation to the zodiacal placement of the Sun on the month of birth, cusp (2 days before or after any particular sign, an overlap), or decante (the month divided into 3 ten-day periods) of the person’s month of birth, identifying the individual’s Sun sign or “star sign” based on the tropical zodiac.

No scientific studies have shown support for the accuracy of horoscopes, and the methods used to make interpretations are pseudo-scientificIn modern scientific framework no known interaction exists that could be responsible for the transmission of the alleged influence between a person and the position of stars in the sky at the moment of birth.[7][8] In all tests completed, keeping strict methods to include a control group and proper blinding between experimenters and subjects, horoscopes have shown no effect beyond pure chance.[9][10] Furthermore, some psychological tests have shown that it is possible to construct personality descriptions and foretelling generic enough to satisfy most members of a large audience simultaneously, referred to as the Forer or Barnum effect.



The horoscope serves as a stylized map of the heavens over a specific location at a particular moment in time. In most applications the perspective is geocentric (heliocentric astrology being one exception). The positions of the actual planets (including Sun and Moon) are placed in the chart, along with those of purely calculated factors such as the lunar nodes, the house cusps including the midheaven and the ascendantzodiac signs, fixed stars and the lots. Angular relationships between the planets themselves and other points, called aspects, are typically determined. The emphasis and interpretation of these factors varies with tradition.


The Sanskrit term for horo is hora (होरा). Horo-scope is hora-shastra (होरा-शास्त्र). The Latin word horoscopus, ultimately from Greek ὡρόσκοπος “nativity, horoscope”, literally “observer of the hour [of birth]”, from ὥρα “time, hour” and σκόπος “observer, watcher”. In Middle English texts from the 11th century, the word appears in the Latin form and is anglicized to horoscope in Early Modern English. The noun horoscopy for “casting of horoscopes” has been in use since the 17th century (OED). In Greek, ὡρόσκοπος in the sense of “ascendant” and ὡροσκοπία “observation of the ascendant” is in use since Ptolemy (Tetrabiblos 33, 75).

Concepts in Western astrology

  • The native is the subject of the event (a birth, for example) being charted at a particular time and place, and is considered to be at the centre of the celestial sphere.
  • The celestial sphere is an imaginary sphere onto which the zodiac, constellations and planets are projected.
  • The plane of the equator is the plane of the Earth’s equator projected into space.
  • The plane of the ecliptic is defined by the orbits of the earth and the sun. For practical purposes the plane of the equator and the plane of the ecliptic maintain a constant inclination to each other of approximately 23.5°.
  • The plane of the horizon is centered on the native, and is tangential to the earth at that point. In a sphere whose radius is infinitely large, this plane may be treated as nearly equivalent to the parallel plane with its centre at the Earth’s center. This greatly simplifies the geometry of the horoscope, but does not take into account that the native is in motion. Some writers on astrology have thus considered the effects of parallax, but most would agree that (apart from that of the moon) they are relatively minor.


There are four primary angles in the horoscope. These are, in order of power:

The ascendant is the easternmost or sunrise point where the ecliptic and horizon intersect; the ascendant and the midheaven are considered the most important angles in the horoscope by the vast majority of astrologers. In most systems of house division, the ascendant is the cusp of the 1st house and the midheaven is the cusp of the 10th house. The placement of the planetary ruler of the ascendant, called the chart ruler is also considered to be significant. The point in the west diametrically opposing the ascendant is called the descendant, normally the cusp of the 7th house; and the point opposing the M.C. is the cusp of the 4th house, the northernmost point of the chart, called the imum coeli or I.C.

In creating a horoscope the ascendant is traditionally placed at the “nine o’clock” position on the left-hand side of the chart wheel (though traditional rectangular chart formats need not follow this convention). During the course of a day, because of the Earth’s rotation, the entire circle of the ecliptic will pass through the ascendant and will be advanced by about 1°. This movement provides us with the term rising sign, which is the sign of the zodiac rising over the eastern horizon at the moment of birth. The point on the ecliptic that is furthest above the plane of the horizon at the time is called the Midheaven, or medium coeli (M.C.), placed at the “twelve o’clock position” effectively where the Sun would be if the birth time was midday.

The Zodiac[edit]

The astrological symbols/glyphsused in Western astrology to represent the astrological signs (Zodiac)

  • The Zodiac, or “circle of animals” is a zone or belt in space projected onto the celestial sphere through which, from our viewpoint, the planets move. A symbolic geometric construction around 15 to 18 degrees wide, it is divided into 12 signs, each of 30 degrees longitude (making 360 degrees in all), with the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun, as its middle line. The tropical zodiac used by most Western astrologers has its beginning at the exact moment that the Sun crosses the celestial equator and enters the zodiacal sign of Aries. Some Western astrologers use the sidereal zodiac favoured by Indian (“jyotish”) astrologers, which is based more closely on actual positions of constellations in the heavens, as opposed to the tropical zodiac, which is a moveable format based on the seasons.

The tropical zodiac defines the vernal point (the first day of spring in the northern hemisphere) as the first degree of Aries, but the sidereal zodiac allows it to precess. Many people are confused regarding the difference between the sidereal zodiac and the tropical zodiac signs. Because of a “wobble” in the Earth’s axis of rotation over a period of about 26,000 years (often called a “great year“), the rate at which the vernal equinox precesses in the heavens is approximately 0 deg, 0 min, 50.23 seconds a year, drifting by one degree every 72 years. Precession of the equinoxes thus occurs at a rate of roughly 5 arc minutes of a degree every 6 years. The tropical signs relate to the seasons and not the stars. Here is an example: a person born on, say August 28, 2002 would come to understand that his/her Sun sign was in Virgo according to Western astrology (conventional Sun sign dates August 23, to September 22, of every year), but Sun on that same calendar date of the year 2002 was in the constellation Leo (where it had been since August 10, 2002 and would remain until September 15, when it would then finally cross into Virgo).

It is worth pointing out that the sidereal signs and the tropical signs are both geometrical conventions of 30° each, whereas the zodiacal constellations are pictorial representations of mythological figures projected onto the celestial sphere based on patterns of visible star groupings, none of which occupy precisely 30° of the ecliptic. So constellations and signs are not the same, although for historical reasons they might have the same names.

It is also worth noting that some astrologers don’t use the signs of the zodiac at all, focusing more instead on the astrological aspects and other features of the horoscope.

  • The sun sign is the sign of the zodiac in which the sun is located for the native. This is the single astrological fact familiar to most people. If an event occurs at sunrise the ascendant and sun sign will be the same; other rising signs can then be estimated at approximately two-hour intervals from there.
  • cusp is the boundary between two signs or houses. For some the cusp includes a small portion of the two signs or houses under consideration.


  • The houses are a series of twelve divisions of the plane of the ecliptic. Astrologers have devised many systems of calculating these house divisions. In the case of the equal house system the ecliptic is divided into twelve equal houses of 30° each. The first house begins at the ascendant and the others are numbered counterclockwise from that point. The first six are therefore below the horizon, and the other six are above. The positions of these houses remains fixed relative to the native. The signs and planets all move through the twelve houses during the course of a day, and the planets move through the signs over the course of months or years.

Construction of a horoscope in Western astrology

To create a horoscope, an astrologer first has to ascertain the exact time and place of the subject’s birth, or the initiation of an event. The local standard time (adjusting for any daylight saving time or war time) is then converted into Greenwich Mean Time or Universal Timeat that same instant. The astrologer then has to convert this into the local sidereal time at birth in order to be able to calculate the ascendant and midheaven. The astrologer will next consult a set of tables called an ephemeris, which lists the location of the Sun, Moon and planets for a particular year, date and sidereal time, with respect to the northern hemisphere vernal equinox or the fixed stars (depending on which astrological system is being used). The astrologer then adds or subtracts the difference between the longitude of Greenwich and the longitude of the place in question to determine the true local mean time (LMT) at the place of birth to show where planets would be visible above the horizon at the precise time and place in question. Planets hidden from view beneath the earth are also shown in the horoscope.

The horoscope features 12 sectors around the circle of the ecliptic, starting from the eastern horizon with the ascendant or rising sign. These 12 sectors are called the houses and numerous systems for calculating these divisions exist. Tables of houses have been published since the 19th Century to make this otherwise demanding task easier.


The astrological symbols/glyphsused in Western astrology to represent the planets in astrology

The chart thus begins with a framework of 12 houses. Upon this the signs of the zodiac are superimposed. In the equal house system the cusp between any two houses will fall at the same degree for each of the at 12° of Leo, the second house will begin at 12° of Virgo, the third at 12° Libra, and so on. In house systems that take into consideration the effects of the angle of intersection between the planes of the horizon and the ecliptic, the calculations are more complicated. For these calculations it is essential to know the latitude of the event. Tables are available for these calculations, but they are now commonly calculated by computer. Most astrology computer programs allow the user to choose from a variety of house systems.

Placements of the planets

Having established the relative positions of the signs in the houses, the astrologer positions the sun, moon, and planets at their proper celestial longitudes. Some astrologers also take note of minor planetary bodies, fixed stars, asteroids (for example, Chiron) and other mathematically calculated points and angles such as the vertex, equatorial ascendant, etc. Many astrologers also use what are commonly referred to as Arabic parts (or Greek Lots), the most common of which is the Part of Fortune (Pars Fortunae).


To complete the horoscope the astrologer will consider the aspects or relative angles between pairs of planets. More exact aspects are considered more important. The difference between the exact aspect and the actual aspect is called the orb. Those generally recognized by the astrological community are Conjunction (0°), Opposition (180°), Square (90°), Trine (120°), Sextile (60°), Semi-Square (45°), Sesquisquare (135°), and Quincunx (150°). Understandably these aspects are more significant when they are exact, but they are considered to function within an orb of influence, the size of which varies according to the importance of each aspect. Thus conjunctions are believed to operate with a larger orb than sextiles. Most modern astrologers use an orb of 8° or less for aspects involving the Sun, Moon, and Jupiter and smaller orbs for the other points. Some astrologers, such as practitioners of Cosmobiology, and Uranian astrology, use minor aspects (15°, 22.5°, 67.5°, 72°, 75°, 105°, 112.5°, 157.5°, 165°) with much narrower orbs.

The major astrological system regarded universally is Vedic Hindu Astrology. As per this, all planets see just opposite i.e. 180 degree aspect. But Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn have special aspects. Mars sees the houses 4th and 8 too from its place in the horoscope, Saturn sees the houses 3 and 10 too from its place, and Jupiter sees 5 and 9 from its place in the horoscope i.e. the house in which they are posited in the lagna chart.


The ascendant (ASC) is a point on the ecliptic that rises on the eastern horizon at sunrise and changes as the earth rotates on its axis. The ascendant is very important in astrological chart interpretation. It exerts more power than the sun, moon and planets because it infiltrates everything in the natal chart. The ascendant is the first point of energy in the natal chart and it represents the way we view life. The sign on the ascendant characterises our expression of “who we are” when dealing with others, and our initial action when dealing with day-to-day concerns.Longitude is necessary in order to determine the position of the Ascendant because horoscopes use local time. Having constructed the horoscope, the astrologer can begin the task of interpreting the chart. This interpretation depends upon which branch of horoscopic astrology is being used……


Jasmine Flower Meanings

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Jasmine is a popular flower associated with love and romance. Its showy white blooms and heavenly fragrance are ideal for moon gardens where lovers spend time whispering sweet nothings under the stars. As a cut flower, it fills the home with a relaxing scent perfect for drifting off to sleep. Some gardeners prefer to plant jasmine outside the bedroom window to allow its fragrance to drift in on the night air.

What Does the Jasmine Flower Mean?

  • The jasmine flower is associated with love.
  • Jasmine also symbolizes beauty and sensuality.
  • In some cultures, Jasmine represents appreciation and good luck.
  • When used in religious ceremonies jasmine represents purity.
  • Jasmine’s meanings varies depending on the culture and setting.

Etymological Meaning of the Jasmine Flower

Jasmine belongs to the Genus ‘Jasminum’ and includes over 200 species of plants, most of which originated in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Its name comes from the Persian word ‘yasmin’ meaning gift from God.

Symbolism of the Jasmine Flower 

Jasmine is the national flower of Pakistan. Both the bride and groom wear garlands of white jasmine and red roses on their wedding day. Floral bouquets of jasmine and roses are also used to celebrate special occasions, and in burial garlands meaning a final farewell.

In the Philippines, garlands of jasmine adorn the participants in religious ceremonies while Indonesians don jasmine for wedding ceremonies. In Thailand, jasmine is the symbol for mother and portrays love and respect. In the United States, jasmine symbolizes beauty, love and romance.

The Jasmine Flower Facts

Jasmine originated in the tropical regions of Asia but is now grown worldwide. While tropical Jasmine will not survive in temperate regions, some modern cultivars do. Cultivated versions are also sold as houseplants. Many gardeners add jasmine to flower gardens or grow them in pots on the deck or patio to scent the night air.

Most species of jasmine produce highly-fragrant, white flowers, but some species produce yellow or pink blooms and some even lack fragrance. Common jasmine grows on a bush or small shrub while some varieties produce vines. Common Jasmine (Jasminum officinale) is used for extracting fragrance for perfumes and lotions or making essential oils.

According to legend, a Tuscan gardener received a jasmine plant from Persian traders and planted it in his private garden. He refused to let anyone cut the flowers from his garden. One day, he presented a branch of the jasmine flowers to his beloved. She was so taken by the fragrance she agreed to marry him – thus began the Tuscan tradition of including jasmine in the bridal bouquet.

Meaningful Botanical Characteristics of the Jasmine Flower

Jasmine is used as a fragrance in perfumes, soaps and lotions and is even used to add its heady scent to jasmine tea. Contrary to popular belief, jasmine tea isn’t really made from jasmine. The tea is brewed from green tea, and then infused with the fragrance of jasmine. To make the tea, jasmine buds are gathered during the day and added to the brewed tea at night, as the buds begin to open and release their fragrance. It can take up to six hours to infuse the tea with the scent of jasmine. It is important to note that jasmine flowers and foliage are not edible and should not be brewed for tea.

Jasmine flower buds are used medicinally to treat eye and skin diseases while the leaves are used to treat breast tumors. Essential oils made from the blossoms, used in both aromatherapy and spiritual ceremonies, evoke wisdom and invoke peace and relaxation. Jasmine is believed to be both an antidepressant and an aphrodisiac making it suitable to scent the bedroom. Jasmine is also thought to be a sedative and sleep aid.

The Jasmine Flower’s Message Is

The jasmine flower’s message is mysteriously complex and means different things in different settings. Its pristine beauty and heady fragrance speaks of love and evokes positive feelings. Whether you choose to grow jasmine in the garden, or prefer a long bath infused with the fragrance of jasmine, its scent will renew the spirit and leave you feeling warm and sensual.


Hour Glass

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  • ‘Hourglasses’ are also known as ‘sandglasses’, ‘sand timers’, ‘egg timers’, ‘sand watches’ and ‘sand clocks’.
  • Hourglasses are usually made from blown glass that has a bulb at each end, joined by a ‘neck’, that is housed in a frame, enabling it to stand vertically, while the bulbs contain many fine grains, which drop from one bulb to another through the neck.
  • Hourglasses are used for time measurement, from minutes to hours, and even a year, and when the top bulb is empty, time is up.
  • The time an hourglass measures can be altered by changing the grain type, the grain amount, size of the bulb, size of the neck and the quality of the grains.
  • Hourglasses were most likely invented in Medieval Europe, possibly in the 700s by Luitprand, a monk in France, although evidence of the invention is not depicted until 1338.
  • Hourglasses replaced waterclocks, as they did not spill in sudden movements or evaporate, condensate, or freeze, at certain temperatures like the waterclocks (clepsydra) were prone to do.
  • Hourglasses were favoured on ships, due to their ability to keep accurate time, despite the rocking of the vessel, and churches and households, for timing of events and cooking respectively.
  • The first versions of hourglasses had bulbs that did not attach with a neck, but instead were joined together by cord and wax.
  • Hourglasses in the modern era, are more commonly used for decorative purposes or timing something, such as cooking eggs or tasks in a board game, that do not need exact time measurements.
  • Hourglass ‘sand’ is often not real sand, but rock dust, marble dust, silica or fine glass beads, and the grains flow better when they are completely round, so angular grains are avoided.

benefits of Green Apples

1. High Fiber Content

It contains a lot of fiber, which helps clean the system and increases metabolism. This, therefore, helps in free bowel movement. It is always advisable to eat an apple with its skin on. The cleaner your intestine and systems are , the happier and healthier you will be.

2. Mineral

It contains, a number of minerals – iron, zinc, copper, manganese, potassium, etc. which are trace minerals and are a must for human health and well-being. The iron in apples is a trace element and it helps in raising the levels of blood oxygen and helps in increased metabolic rate

3. Low in Fat Content

This is a great food when it comes to weight watchers. People on diet and/or are regular gym goers should and must include one apple in their every day diet. It also collects the fats in the blood vessels and helps in maintaining proper blood flow to the heart preventing the chances of strokes.

4. Prevents Skin Cancer

It contains Vitamin C that helps in preventing skin cells damage by free radicals and thus reduces the chances of skin cancer.

5. Rich In Anti-Oxidants

It contains anti-oxidants which help in cell re-building and cell rejuvenation. This also helps you in maintaining healthy and glowing skin. The antioxidants also protect your liver and ensure its proper functioning.

6. Prevents Alzheimer’s

Having an apple every day prevents chances of old-age neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s.

7. Prevents Asthma

Taking apple juice regularly can prevent chances of asthma which is a hypersensitive allergic disorder.

8. Prevents Diabetes

Apples prevent diabetes. It is a must have for diabetics.

9. Rich In Vitamin A,B and C

Green apples are rich in Vitamins A, B and C, so apart from protecting the skin from harmful effects of free radicals; it also helps one in maintaining glowing skin from inside.

10. A Natural Detoxifier

Packed with a good dose of fiber, this green juice keeps your liver, kidney, and digestive system free from toxins and harmful elements . The presence of fiber also ensures that you are free of constipation issues. The high fiber content in this juice also helps in cutting down the risk of developing colon cancer.

11. Gives Your Metabolic Rate A Boost

This juice is a treasure trove of a wide variety of minerals, including copper, iron, potassium, and manganese. All these elements play a major role in keeping you in good health. Iron, especially, is known to aid in better absorption of oxygen, which in turn boosts the metabolic rate of your body .

12. Good For Your Liver

Along with being a natural detoxifying agent, green apple juice is also known to possess antioxidants in good quantities. These antioxidants actually prevent the free radicals from damaging the liver. This, in turn, ensures that your liver functions properly, while keeping it safe from various hepatic conditions.

13. Helps To Lose Weight

This green hued drink makes a filling snack in between your meals . Packed with fiber and low on fats, sugar, and sodium, green apple juice is known to restrict hunger pangs. Plus, it improves the calorie burning potential, which helps you to achieve your weight loss goals in a tasty way.

14. Protects You From Inflammatory Conditions

Green apple juice, as mentioned above, contains a good dose of antioxidants. These antioxidants actually help in safeguarding your body from oxidative stress-induced painful inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatism and arthritis. Studies suggest that senior citizens who suffer from such inflammatory conditions should include green apple juice in their diet .

15. Good For Your Lungs

Studies suggest that regular use of green apple juice can cut down the risk associated with the onset of asthma by a good 23% . People who are regular smokers can also rely on this fresh delight to safeguard themselves from obstructive pulmonary diseases.

16. Good For Your Vision

Green apple juice is a source of various vitamins. The Vitamin A present in this juice is known to possess the potential to strengthen and improve your vision.

17. Good For Blood Clotting

This green juice is a potential source of Vitamin K, the element that helps the blood to coagulate and clot . People who drink this juice possess a better wound repairing and healing potential. Women, who have extremely heavy periods, can also use this drink to bring the bleeding under control.

18. Healthy Strong Bones

Green apple juice has a rich presence of calcium, which is essential for strengthening the bones and teeth and keeping them healthy . Women, especially, in their menopause, should include this drink in their diet to prevent osteoporosis.

Skin Benefits Of Green Apples

Green apple is an excellent beauty enhancer. Lots of skin care and hair care benefits are associated with green apples.

19. Anti-Aging Ingredient

The antioxidants, such as Vitamin A, Vitamin C, and phenols present in green apple juice play a major in delaying premature aging. Free radicals present in the body cause the early onset of wrinkles, fine lines, and dark spots. Regular use of this antioxidant rich drink can help the body fight these free radicals and control or even better, eliminate the damages

20. Improves Skin Texture

A face mask involving the use of green apple can deeply moisturize your skin and help to eliminate the appearance of wrinkles while improving the overall texture of your skin. You can take the help of green apple juice to improve the hydration levels of your skin. It can either be consumed or even be used as a face wash to prevent the skin from drying out.

21. Nourishes the Skin

Owing to its dense vitamin content, green apple helps in maintaining your skin and has great whitening and nourishing effects on your complexion. Packed with assorted vitamins and minerals, you can incorporate this drink into your skin care regimen. The collagen and elastin proteins get a boost, which in turn, improves your complexion by nourishing and healing the skin from deep within

22. Prevents Skin Diseases

Many a time, lack of nourishment leaves the skin at the risk of various skin disorders, including eczema and cancer. Green apple juice ensures that the skin gets the necessary levels of nourishment. It also offers protection from various skin issues.

23. Controls & Prevents Pimple Eruptions

Green apple is a highly effective anti-acne treatment as well. Regular consumption of green apple help you control and prevent pimple eruptions.

24. Eliminates Dark Eye Circles

The deep brown circles along with puffiness around your eyes are signs of your skin getting older . Topical application of fresh apple juice as well as internal consumption is known to have a positive impact on these undesirable changes.

Hair Benefits Of Green Apples:

Green apple is not only good for our skin but for our hair as well. Here we have a few of the benefits of green apples for your hair listed for you.

25. Cures Dandruff

A paste created with the leaves and skin of green apple works wonders to fix dandruff. You should use this paste as a shampoo. Green apple juice also has the same effects if massaged regularly onto the scalp.

26. Enhances Hair Growth

Packed with a tempting array of vitamins and minerals, green apple juice is a potential natural remedy for strengthening your tresses. Along with that, it also makes sure that your hair fall is under control. Plus, regular use of this juice is also known to promote hair growth. In short, using green apple juice could help you show off long, strong, and lush hair

Peace From Within

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So many of us exist in a cloud of internal and external chaos.

Our lives are so over-scheduled that we go about our days frantic and preoccupied. It’s hard to relax or fully enjoy life with all of the distractions and upsets.

In fact, you’ve probably known people who are prone to creating problems and crises. They even get off on the drama in a weird, unhealthy way. But inside they feel anxious, unsettled, and rarely content. Small disruptions morph into major issues. Someone spitting in their face would cause a tsunami.

Others are born with a disposition that is calm and not prone to agitation. That’s a lucky head-start, but lasting inner peace and the desire to make it a priority in life is a learned trait. In a culture that venerates busyness and constant stimulation, you have to make peace a priority if you want to reap the benefits.

Inner peace is more about being than doing. It’s about leaning toward rather than struggling against. It’s about being fully present and focused on the task at hand. The rewards of inner peace are numerous. They include mental and physical health and well-being, self-confidence, better relationships, and a more intense and joyful experience of life.

Most of us want these things, but sometimes we must shift our perceptions of ourselves and how we live in order to create an environment to foster inner peace. Once we make the shift, we must practice the actions that lead to inner peace in order to sustain it.

Here are ten practical actions on how to find inner peace.

1. Have nothing unresolved.

As opposed to just having things finished, completely clear up the larger unresolved issues personally and professionally that sap your energy and create other problems in your life. You will feel a weight come off your shoulders.

2Surrender and accept what is.

Rather than resisting and fighting, just stop struggling. Resistance blocks energy and creativity. How can you find a solution when you are flailing about and tensed up? Unhook yourself from the situation or person and view it from a detached perspective.

3. Take full responsibility for how you react to others.

Other people don’t make you behave in a certain way. You choose your behavior. Decide who you want to be in all circumstances. Mentally prepare yourself and plan for a calm, unflappable response even during trying times.

4. Become aware of and sensitive to feelings rather than ignoring them.

This means your own feelings as well as others. Don’t shove away feelings because they are uncomfortable. They are sending you a message. Take time to poke around those feelings to discover what is behind them. If you don’t, the feelings will come back in more unpleasant ways and really disrupt your peace.

5. Tell the entire truth.

Resist editing, lying, or translating. Be real. Lay it on the table in a gentle and authentic way to yourself and others. Hiding the truth doesn’t serve you in the long run. Staying true to your integrity brings peace of mind.

6. Know your higher self.

Distinguish between your self versus your mind, ego, needs or past experience. Take the time to understand who you really are. What are your values, your goals, your joys and passions, your integrity? Those are what define you and make you authentic.

7. Unhinge from adrenaline.

Adrenaline is the drug of choice in a stressed out society. It gives us a jolt of superhuman energy when faced with a threat. But mostly we use it to get that rush to blast through the day. An adrenaline lifestyle can do soul-damaging things: overworking, being greedy, insistence on getting ahead or winning even at the expense of relationships. Kick the adrenaline dependency. Slow down and let go — or risk losing your health, your relationships, and your peace of mind.

8. Know what rattles your cage.

What makes you bristle or pushes your buttons? There’s a reason you react, and understanding the truth behind these feelings is the first step in addressing the problem or letting it go. Keep asking yourself, “Why do I feel this way?” until you know the real answer. Then deal with the answer directly.

9. Step over nothing, even the small stuff.

Don’t ignore even the smallest tolerations or imbalance in your life. You may not be able to change everything, but awareness and the ability to manage tolerations in a healthy way can bring you peace.

10. Prioritize peace ahead of performance.

Make an estimated guess on the days you have left to live. Do you want to look back at your life and celebrate the rushing around, the completed “to do” lists, and the stuff, or do you want to reflect on days of calm, connectedness, great relationships, wonderful experiences, and peace of mind?

The most profound impact of inner peace is the peace it spreads to the world outside of us. Peace between families, communities, and countries begins with each individual. Inner peace is contagious. As you find inner peace for yourself, you become a model for others and spread the seeds of peace everywhere you go.

Fatigued or just tired? There is a difference

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Being tired is not the same as being fatigued or exhausted, and the difference matters, according to a researcher from Canada who has spent years investigating fatigue in various populations.

“It’s important to recognize the difference between tiredness and fatigue, because fatigue is a marker that the body is not able to keep up,” said Dr. Karin Olson, with the faculty of nursing at the University of Alberta. “The onset of the manifestations of fatigue, particularly if these are not normal states for you, should be taken seriously.”

Olson has studied fatigue in cancer patients, people diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome and depression, as well as shift workers and athletes. “These populations were chosen because they experienced fatigue for different reasons — illness, work, or leisure activities,” Olson told Reuters Health.

Olson has found that the while the reasons for fatigue may vary, the descriptions of fatigue are the same, although the kinds of adaptations required to conquer fatigue may not be.

Based her observations, Olson created new definitions for tiredness, fatigue and exhaustion that she believes represent various points on an energy continuum. She describes her work in the current issue of Oncology Nursing Forum.

People who are tired, Olson explained, still have a fair bit of energy but are apt to feel forgetful and impatient and experience muscle weakness following work, which is often alleviated by rest.

People who are fatigued, on the other hand, experience difficulty concentrating, anxiety, a gradual decrease in stamina, difficulty sleeping, and increased sensitivity to light. They also may skip social engagements once viewed as important to them.

People who suffer from exhaustion, Olson has observed, report frank confusion that resembles delirium, emotional numbness, sudden loss of energy, difficulty in staying awake as well as in sleeping and complete social withdrawal.

Failure to recognize the difference between tiredness, fatigue and exhaustion could lead to inappropriate approaches to combat the problem, which could make matters worse. For example, Olson has some evidence that while exercise may relieve tiredness, it may decrease the ability to adapt in people who are suffering from fatigue or exhaustion.

If it’s fatigue or exhaustion, caffeine and other stimulants should be avoided as these substances fool the body into thinking it has more energy that it actually does.

Olson’s advice: “Learn to recognize fatigue in yourself and those you care about — friends, family, colleagues.”

“Try to eliminate some of the life stressors, if you can, and also try to increase your resistance to stressors.” One way to do this, Olson said, is to do something regularly that brings you joy. “It doesn’t need to be big and it doesn’t need to ‘make sense’ to others. It’s something you do for yourself because you like it. Do it every day if you can, or at least a few times a week.” It’s a good lesson for today’s stressed-out youth as well.



Mind Verses Brain



The Mind vs. Brain Debate (What is Consciousness?)

by Christina Sarich

The mind vs. brain debate has been going on since before Aristotle. He and Plato argued that the soul housed intelligence or wisdom and that it could not be placed within the physical body. In a well-described version of dualism, Descartes identifies mind with the consciousness and self-awareness of itself, with an ability to distinguish itself from the brain, but still called the brain the seat of intelligence.

In yogic science, the mind is considered to be pure vibrating energy. It is an element (non-physical by nature) which conducts “thought” faster than the speed of light and retains all experience whether consciously addressed by the thinker or not. It can create substance from nothing. It contains the aura, or energy body and can project to other minds, and receive from them also. It communicates in the language of feeling. It has a profound effect on the energy level of the physical body, which temporarily houses it, and has the capacity to heal its own physical house as well as that of others. It is often referred to as a Spark of the Divine or as a wave on the vast limitless ocean of the cosmic ever-present possibility of what is. Our minds, due to their nature as a spark or wave of a much greater, infinite intelligence, are capable of unbelievable things.

In yogic science, the brain is simply a physical manifestation of the mind itself. This is a complex idea to grasp. Let us look at one profoundly odd phenomenon to try to understand the mind/brain difference.

About 80% of people who have lost a limb due to accident or illness report feeling excruciating pain, burning, aching, or even as though this absent part of their bodies is being crushed even when it is no longer there. This is often referred to as the phantom limb. The sensations of pain are created by the brain and are experienced no differently than someone with a present limb.

This incredible phenomenon has stumped doctors for over a hundred years. Only now are they beginning to understand, partly through research by Dr. Ramachandran, that “the touch signals from the entire surface of your body are mapped on the surface of your brain – in a strip between your two ears called your sensory cortex. The area that ‘feels’ your hand is very close to the area for your face.”

To make a complex phenomenon simple, when patients that were blind folded were touched on the face, they felt corresponding feeling of being touched on the phantom limb, say on the middle index finger. The feelings are very specific. In order to eliminate the pain felt by the patient with the missing limb, Drs. Giraux and Sirigu have shown that merely training patients to imagine their paralyzed arms moving in relation to a moving arm on a screen in front of them can relieve phantom limb pain. That posits an interesting set of questions. Is it the mind feeling the limb, or the erroneous assumption of the brain? Why would the brain feel something that wasn’t there? Is this true consciousness?

Consciousness Beyond the Brain

The human brain has three principal structures. The largest is the cerebrum and is the center for intellectual functioning or reasoning. The cerebellum is the second structure, located at the back of the skull. It helps us to stand tall and not fall over. It is in charge of balance. The third structure is the medulla, a stem leading into the spinal column, which helps to handle involuntary tasks like respiration. These three structures work together to help carry out the role of cognition, but they are not mind itself. Mind is not a physical entity.

Although it is theorized that memories in the brain are just stored chemical structures such as in a neural network, some doctors are pointing to evidence of awareness once the physical structure of the brain is considered “dead.” Dr. Peter Fenwick has studied the phenomenon of near-death experiences in his patients and documented people’s accurate descriptions of what is happening in the room after they have flat-lined and been pronounced clinically dead.

Peter Fenwick, M.D., F.R.C.Psych., is Senior Lecturer at the Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College, London, and associated with the Mental Health Group at the University of Southampton. He is also Consultant Neuropsychiatrist at the Maudsley Hospital and at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford. His studies have shown that across cultural differences, sex, age and type of death there are remarkable experiences reported with many similarities by patients who experience near-death.

Some have argued that near-death experiences could have been caused by chemical reactions in the brain due to drugs being given at the time of death; however, “Thirty-seven percent of our respondents reportedly were receiving drugs at the time of their NDEs, and 63 percent were not. So the theory that NDEs are all drug induced could not be correct. About two thirds had their NDEs during illness, operations, childbirth, or accidents. Two percent occurred in suicide attempts and 20 percent in other circumstances that included anxiety states, dreams, relaxation states, or quite spontaneously in the normal course of life.” 1 Neuroscience maintains that conscious experience is not possible during physical unconsciousness, so that leads to the question of mind or consciousness being something alive beyond the confines of brain death.

More double blind, randomized, controlled trials on many aspects of spiritual medicine are being conducted, many with the focus of determining the locality of consciousness. But with the ideas of Fenwick and others, the medical world is not the only field of science asking questions about consciousness. Physicists have been asking this question too. In his last autobiographic paper, Einstein wrote: “. . .the discovery is not the matter of logical thought, even if the final product is connected with the logical form.”

Two other philosophers seconded Einstein’s feeling. Neither Hume nor Kant understood Newton’s laws as laws of the Universe. Hume thought that there really were no natural laws for the reason that all theories claiming that fact are underdetermined and subject to rebuttal. Kant would say that Newton’s laws concerned only the appearance of things and not things as they really are, therefore, all things are not laws of the universe but products of human thought. To Kant, Newton’s laws were “transcendental” but not transcendent. Quantum mechanics is now struggling with these same philosophical questions, which all lead back to an understanding of consciousness. The emergence of quantum mechanics forces physicists to be become philosophers again.

One of the basic premises of quantum study is that the quantum (of energy) is indivisible. In Neils Bohr’s words, there is “an indivisible wholeness, an unanalyzable wholeness. At the moment of observation, the observer and observed make a single, unified whole.” 2 The wave/particle theory also describes the presence of greater intelligence at least insofar as understanding the power of the mind. Not only is intelligence not relegated to the workings of the brain, it is not even relegated to the atoms and quarks we observe. When looking at waves and particles and their behavior physicists find that they act differently once observed. Consciousness, in fact, may create them.

Further, Max Born’s colleague Pascual Jordan declared that observations not only disturb what has to be measured, they produce it. In a measurement, “the electron is forced to a decision. We compel it to assume a definite position; previously it was, in general, neither here nor there, it had not yet made its decision for a definite position….We ourselves produce the results of the measurement.”3

So is consciousness merely the collection of chemical functions in our brains, of neuronal networks of billions of cells communicating with one another, or is it even more complex, existing not just outside the brain, but completely separate from it? Does the brain’s functioning proscribe the ability of consciousness to exist without this physical apparatus? Kant, Bohr, Einstein and others would say no. It seems philosophy and science have circled around themselves to return to the same house on the cul-de-sac.

Consciousness or mind is not matter. But even quantum mechanics is having a hard time describing consciousness.

In the Quantum Mind Theory, supported by the well-known mathematical physicist Roger Penrose, it is assumed that large-scale quantum coherence is necessary to understanding the brain and mind. Quantum coherence is a state of balance when two quanta’s individual frequencies are in constructive interaction.

The main argument against the quantum mind is that the brain is warm, wet, and noisy and that the structures of the brain are much too large for quantum mechanics to be important. Consequently, it is difficult for coherent quantum states to form for very long in the brain, and impossible for them to exist at the scales on the order of the size of neurons. These issues have led Penrose to argue that consciousness is not a consequence of interactions between neurons in the brain but arises as from microtubules within cells, which are much smaller and for which quantum effects could be significant. This was originally the theory of Stuart Hameroff.

On the other hand, a system does not cease to be quantum because it is wet and noisy. And then, what was previously dismissed as “noise” in the brain has recently been discovered to be complex signals. Then again, if the brain is fractal in character, it may well exhibit sensitive dependence on initial (quantum) conditions. Given the fractal character of dendritic arborizations, brain function may depend on self-similar processes at lower spatio-temporal scales. Or, neural form follows quantum function. If all matter consists of quantum fields, as Dyson makes explicit in his Scientific American article on “Field Theory,” then the brain just is a collection of such fields.4

In a recent article in EnlightenNext Magazine, Stuart Hameroff, MD describes microtubules as a possible quantum-physics-based solution to the question of consciousness, ” Microtubules are molecular assemblies; they’re cylindrical polymers composed of repeating patterns of a single peanut-shaped protein called tubulin that can flex “open” and “closed.” The tubulin proteins self assemble into these beautifully elegant hollow cylinders with walls arranged in hexagonal lattices. . .neurons need a lot of microtubules. If you look inside a single neuron, there are hundreds of microtubules composed of something like one hundred million tubulin protein subunits. You could say the neurons are actually made of microtubules.” Hameroff supposes that although heretofore scientists believed that communication between neurons was the basis for consciousness, the presence of microtubules may actually explain the physical basis for consciousness.5

Even though there are one hundred billion or so neurons in our brains, there are 100 times as many microtubules in every neuron. So, every neuron has consciousness or at least some structure to support consciousness. This brings us to the question, yet again, of how to get mind out of matter. Sir Roger Penrose believes that consciousness involves something non-computable. This is described in Gödel’s theorem. Gödel’s are actually two theorems of mathematics. They establish inherent limitations “of all but the most trivial axiomatic systems for mathematics. The theorems, proven by Kurt Gödel in 1931, are important both in mathematical logic and in the philosophy of mathematics. The two results are widely interpreted as showing that Hilbert’s program to find a complete and consistent set of axioms for all of mathematics is impossible, thus giving a negative answer to Hilbert’s second problem.

The first incompleteness theorem states that no consistent system of axioms whose theorems can be listed by an “effective procedure” (essentially, a computer program) is capable of proving all facts about the natural numbers. For any such system, there will always be statements about the natural numbers that are true, but that are unprovable within the system. The second incompleteness theorem shows that if such a system is also capable of proving certain basic facts about the natural numbers, then one particular arithmetic truth the system cannot prove is the consistency of the system itself.”

Hameroff used Penrose and Gödel’s findings with his own intuition to conclude that it isn’t just a human observer which is required to collapse a state of superposition (often called the Copenhagan interpretation of quantum mechanics), but instead, superpositions naturally collapse themselves. In this model, consciousness happens as a series of discrete events (these collapsing superpositions in the quantum field) that we experience as consciousness. Still, the conscious moment and the quantum wave function are one and the same event. It goes back to Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Roger assumes that the gravitational curvature of spacetime also occurs in this very small scale, such as in the functioning of microtubuls in the brain. So, to these thinkers, mind is not matter, but consciousness and matter are inextricably linked.

The yogic philosopher, Patanjali told us that “When you are inspired by some great purpose, some extraordinary project, all your thoughts break their bonds: Your mind transcends limitations, your consciousness expands in every direction, and you find yourself in a new, great, and wonderful world. Dormant forces, faculties and talents become alive, and your discover yourself to be a greater person by far than you ever dreamed yourself to be.”

Regardless of whether mind is contained in the brain or exists beyond these physical boundaries, it is evident that it is something quit immense. The spark of an eternal fire or the wave of a vast ocean are apt metaphors to describe it. The cosmic nature of mind has been described for centuries prior to Kant and Plato, Descartes, Einstein, Bohr, and Socrates offered their musings. Mahatma Ghandi told us, ” You can chain me, you can torture me, you can even destroy this body, but you will never imprison my mind.” If mind is indestructible, and vast beyond our perception, then do the semantics of its origins really even matter? It is natural for the mind to want to know itself, and this era of human development marks the ability for consciousness to know it is conscious. This alone is an evolutionary leap.

Perhaps we can agree with David Chalmers, “. . .much of the work going on now in neuroscience and psychology, where people are studying the relationship of consciousness to neural and cognitive processes without really trying to reduce it to those processes. . .[I agree with that.]” The brain vs. mind debate may not be a question of either or after all, but a question of quantum reality: the interweaving of mind and matter into one. This is the simple definition of yoga. From the Sanskrit root “yuj,” meaning “to control,” “to yoke” or “to unite.” Yoga derives from “yujir samadhau,” which means “contemplation” or “absorption.” Perhaps we will yoke our mind with the body by the contemplation of consciousness itself.

The Power Of Being Optimism

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Optimism is a mental attitude reflecting a belief or hope that the outcome of some specific endeavor, or outcomes in general, will be positive, favorable, and desirable. A common idiom used to illustrate optimism versus pessimism is a glass filled with water to the halfway point, where an optimist is said to see the glass as half full and a pessimist sees the glass as half empty.

The term derives from the Latin optimum, meaning “best”. Being optimistic, in the typical sense of the word, is defined as expecting the best possible outcome from any given situation. This is usually referred to in psychology as dispositional optimism. It thus reflects a belief that future conditions will work out for the best.

Theories of optimism include dispositional models, and models of explanatory style. Methods to measure optimism have been developed within both theoretical systems, such as various forms of the Life Orientation Test, for the original definition of optimism, or the Attributional Style Questionnaire designed to test optimism in terms of explanatory style.

Variation in optimism and pessimism is somewhat heritable and reflects biological trait systems to some degree. It is also influenced by environmental factors, including family environment, with some suggesting it can be learned. Optimism may also be linked to health.

Philosophical optimalism, as defined by Nicholas Rescher, holds that this universe exists because it is better than the alternatives. While this philosophy does not exclude the possibility of a deity, it also doesn’t require one, and is compatible with atheism.

Psychological optimalism, as defined by the positive psychologist Tal Ben-Shahar, means willingness to accept failure while remaining confident that success will follow, a positive attitude he contrasts with negative perfectionismPerfectionism can be defined as a persistent compulsive drive toward unattainable goals and valuation based solely in terms of accomplishment.  Perfectionists reject the realities and constraints of human ability. They cannot accept failures, delaying any ambitious and productive behavior in fear of failure again. This neuroticism can even lead to clinical depression and low productivity. As an alternative to negative perfectionism, Ben-Shahar suggests the adoption of optimalism. Optimalism allows for failure in pursuit of a goal, and expects that while the trend of activity is towards the positive, it is not necessary to always succeed while striving towards goals. This basis in reality prevents the optimalist from being overwhelmed in the face of failure.

Optimalists accept failures and also learn from them, which encourages further pursuit of achievement. Dr. Tal Ben-Shahar believes that Optimalists and Perfectionists show distinct different motives. Optimalists tend to have more intrinsic, inward desires, with a motivation to learn, while perfectionists are highly motivated by a need to consistently prove themselves worthy.

What is Brain Health?






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Throughout your life, your brain’s job is to help you make sense of the world and help oversee your daily operations and life. Brain health refers to the ability to remember, learn, play, concentrate and maintain a clear, active mind. It’s being able to draw on the strengths of your brain—information management, logic, judgement, perspective and wisdom. Simply, brain health is all about making the most of your brain and helping reduce some risks to it as you age.

Every day, scientists are discovering how closesly our minds and bodies are connected.

It turns out the things you do to help keep your body and heart healthy may be good for your brain health, too. By taking steps today, you may be able to help reduce some risks to your brain. Read on to find out what activities may play an important role in your brain health.

Your Brain Is Always Changing

This process is called “brain plasticity”—as we experience the world, practice habits and learn new information, our brains change, grow new connections and repair broken ones. As we age, our experiences and knowledge keep our brains working, developing and learning. You may experience noticeable changes, but not all changes are a sign of concern. We all lose our keys and forget people’s names. We do it throughout our entire lives. It’s not until we’re older that these common mishaps cause us to worry. It’s also important to know there are several other reasons lapses in memory occur, like taking certain medications, lack of sleep and excessive alcohol.

Your brain is your most powerful organ, yet weighs only about three pounds. It has a texture similar to firm jelly.

It has three main parts:

  1. The cerebrum fills up most of your skull. It is involved in remembering, problem solving, thinking, and feeling. It also controls movement.
  2. The cerebellum sits at the back of your head, under the cerebrum. It controls coordination and balance.
  3. The brain stem sits beneath your cerebrum in front of your cerebellum. It connects the brain to the spinal cord and controls automatic functions such as breathing, digestion, heart rate and blood pressure.
  4. Your brain is nourished by one of your body’s richest networks of blood vessels.

    With each heartbeat, arteries carry about 20 to 25 percent of your blood to your brain, where billions of cells use about 20 percent of the oxygen and fuel your blood carries.

    When you are thinking hard, your brain may use up to 50 percent of the fuel and oxygen.

    The whole vessel network includes veins and capillaries in addition to arteries.

  5. Your brain’s wrinkled surface is a specialized outer layer of the cerebrum called the cortex. Scientists have “mapped” the cortex by identifying areas strongly linked to certain functions.

    Specific regions of the cortex:

    • Control voluntary movement.
      • In most people, the language area is chiefly on the left.
      • The real work of your brain goes on in individual cells. An adult brain contains about 100 billion nerve cells, or neurons, with branches that connect at more than 100 trillion points. Scientists call this dense, branching network a “neuron forest.”

        Signals traveling through the neuron forest form the basis of memories, thoughts, and feelings.

        Neurons are the chief type of cell destroyed by Alzheimer’s disease.

      • Signals that form memories and thoughts move through an individual nerve cell as a tiny electrical charge.

        Nerve cells connect to one another at synapses. When a charge reaches a synapse, it may trigger release of tiny bursts of chemicals called neurotransmitters. The neurotransmitters travel across the synapse, carrying signals to other cells. Scientists have identified dozens of neurotransmitters.

        Alzheimer’s disease disrupts both the way electrical charges travel within cells and the activity of neurotransmitters.

        Your brain is divided into right and left halves. Experts are not certain how the “left brain” and “right brain” may differ in function, except:

        • The right half controls the body’s left side100 billion nerve cells. 100 trillion synapses. dozens of neurotransmitters. This “strength in numbers” provides your brain’s raw material. Over time, our experiences create patterns in signal type and strength. These patterns of activity explain how, at the cellular level, our brains code our thoughts, memories, skills and sense of who we are.
      • The positron emission tomography (PET) scan on the left shows typical patterns of brain activity associated with:

        Activity is highest in red areas and then decreases through the other colors of the rainbow from yellow to blue-violet.

        Specific activity patterns change throughout life as we meet new people, have new experiences and acquire new skills. The patterns also change when Alzheimer’s disease or a related disorder disrupts nerve cells and their connections to one another.

        So much comes to the Brain functions but when it come to health Brain Please be sure to overcome any obstacles that can damage this, yet some are uncontrollable, Yet many ways to help work through and parts when natural unpreventable damages occur. Please always be knowledgeable  in any situation.

This Is What Negative Thinking Does to Your Brain

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We have evolved with an amazing brain to make decisions and respond quickly to threats to our safety.Adapting to make a quick decision when faced with frightening events helped us to stay alive.

When we worry or have negative thoughts, we trick our brains into thinking that there is an immediate threat that we have to take care of. As a result, our fight or flight response kicks in to deal with the stress.

Our brains are pre-wired to respond to negative events, words and behavior more quickly than we do to the opposite. When we think positively, our brain assumes that everything is under control and no action is needed.


study in the Journal of Clinical Psychology studied the effects of worrying on performing a task. Subjects were required to sort things into two categories. People who reported that they worry 50% of the time or more showed a significant disruption in their ability to sort objects as the difficulty of the sorting task increased.

In a follow up study by these researchers they were able to show that demonstrated that the disruption was a result of increased levels of negative thoughts. When the brain is faced with complex tasks, negative thinking hurts your ability to process information and think clearly.

If the researchers are correct, thinking negatively about your problems not only doesn’t help solve anything, it actually makes it harder for you to think of a helpful solution. You can read more about how thinking positively affects your brain health here.


If you have a tendency to over-react to stress, it could be due to changes in your brain brought on by negative thinking. Negative experiences are stored in the brain by the amygdala. The amygdala is also responsible for the brain’s fight or flight response. The prefrontal cortex regulates our response to stressors.

Someone who is faced with a stressful situation like being in a traffic jam normally assesses the level of threat to their safety and concludes that the threat is less than the annoyance factor and talks themselves through relaxing until it is over.

In contrast, someone who has been previously exposed to stress that was life-threatening and is suffering from PTSD might see the traffic jam as a threat to their safety and respond as if they are under attack. They lack the ability to distinguish between the true threat and the perceived stress and over-react.


The thalamus is responsible to sending sensory and motor signals to the rest of the body but it does not understand that negative thoughts aren’t the same as real danger. When you think negative thoughts, the thalamus assumes that it needs to prepare the body to flee. As a result, our bodies experience real stress symptoms of rapid heartbeat, elevated blood pressure, and a state of heightened arousal.

Imagine just sitting quietly and suddenly having the physical symptoms of fear. You can sense your heart rate increase, your breathing increases, you perspire, and your blood pressure goes up. You start looking for the cause of the symptoms, but when there is no rational explanation for the fear response it is the thalamus causing you to have a panic attack.

Negative thoughts affect our brain by triggering this same stress response. Chronic stress affects the body physically and can have negative effects on our health and well-being.


Stress from negative thinking creates changes in the brain that may affect your likelihood of mental disorders such as anxiety, depression, ADHD, schizophrenia and mood disorders.

People who have Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) have been shown to have abnormalities in their brains. The amount of grey matter versus white matter. The difference is that grey matter is where the information is processed by neurons whereas white matter is a fibrous network that connects the neurons. Chronic stress produces more white matter connections but fewer neurons.

The balance of grey matter and white matter in the brain is important for the timing of communication in the brain. It is believed that the disruption in connections affects both your mood and your memories of the associations with that mood.

The problem is that our brains are good at learning from bad experiences but bad at learning from good experiences. According to Dr. Rick Hanson, creator of The Taking in The Good Course, a brain training program to use your mind to improve your happiness, says that people who completed a program of training themselves to replace negative thoughts with positive ones “experienced significantly less anxiety and depression, and significantly greater self-control, savoring, compassion, love, contentment, joy, gratitude, self-esteem, self-compassion, satisfaction with life, and overall happiness.”

Improving our brains by eliminating negative thinking is possible. Replacing negative thinking with positive thinking is like training your brain just like you would a dog. You give a dog a reward for good behavior and your brain is similar in that positive thoughts create pleasure in the brain, which is a reward. Once we feel pleasure, we want more of it, so give your brain positive thoughts and keep it on a steady diet of self-rewarding pleasure.