Octagon cut spinel

Spinel is associated with ruby in many areas where it is mined, and this is the reason why it has been confused with it for a very long time.
Many famous rubies in crown jewels are in fact spinel.

One of the most fascinating gemstone in the world is the «Timur ruby» which is a red spinel weighting 361 carats, that is cut in cabochon and named after Tamerlain, the Tartar conqueror, who was one of his owners.
This stone has the names of its former owners engraved upon it, and some of them are the same with previous owners of the famous Kohinoor diamond.
The Tamerlain is now owned by Queen Elizabeth of England.

Another famous historical spinel set in the British Crown Jewels is the «Black Prince’s Ruby». This cabochon of an estimated weight of 170 carats, was worn on the battle helmet of Henry V during the battle of Azincourt in 1415.

A faceted red spinel of more than 400 carats belonged to Empress Catherine II of Russia, and is now part of the Russian Treasure in the Kremlin.

Spinels were most often referred to as «balas rubies», name which may have referred to their country of origin, either Badakshan in Afghanistan or the Balaksh region of Sri Lanka.

Oval cut spinelThe origin of the name spinel is unknown. It may be a derivative of the Latin word «spinella» or from a Greek word meaning spark, in reference to the bright red or orange color of some crystals.

Spinel owns his color to chromium, for the red to orange stones, to manganese for the violet and to iron for the blue variety.
Occasionally, a color changing variety called « alexandrite like spinel » can be found; its color turns from a light gray blue in daylight to a light purple under artificial light.

Another extremely rare variety is the attractive cobalt blue spinel, seen only in small sizes in some mineral collections..


Sphene Gemstone Information

Sphene Gemstone Information

About Sphene – History and Introduction

Sphene is a very rare brilliant yellowish-green, green, orange or brown gemstone with a high luster, also known as “titanite” due to its titanium content. The name “sphene” comes from the Greek word, “sphen”, meaning “wedge”, which alludes to the formation of its crystals. Due to its high dispersion, when brilliant-cut, sphene can exhibit a fire similar to that of diamond.

Sphene has been known since 1787 and was named according to its titanium content in 1795 by Martin Klaproth. In 1801, it was given the name “sphene” by French mineralogist, Rene Just Hauy. In 1982, the International Mineralogical Association Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names (CNMMN) decided to use the name “titanite” rather than “sphene”. However, both “sphene” and “titanite” continue to be recognized in mineralogy circles, and sphene is the most frequently used gemology term.

Sphene Gemstone

Sphene can be identified by its high luster, a refractive index that is typically over the limit of standard refractometers and intense fire, caused by a high dispersion. Sphene has a similar refractive index to zircon, but can be distinguished from zircon by its Mohs hardness score of 5 to 5.5, whereas zircon has a Mohs hardness of 6.5 to 7.5.

Sphene deposits are found in Brazil, Burma (Myanmar), India, Kenya, Madagascar, Mexico, Austria, Sri Lanka (Ceylon) and the USA.

Sphene Color

Sphene can occur yellow, brown, green or reddish and various shades in between, such as cognac color. Intense green sphene is also known as “chrome sphene”, due to the color agent being chromium. “Chrome sphene” and yellowish-green sphene are the most desirable colors. Reddish sphene gets its color from manganese impurities and is sometimes referred to as “greenovite”.

Sphene Clarity and Luster

Sphene is rarely free from inclusions and eye clean stones are rare. Gemstones in sizes over 5 carats are also rare and are highly valued. Sphene has an adamantine luster, which combined with its high dispersion, makes it an attractive gemstone.

Sphene Cut and Shape

Sphene is cut in a variety of faceted shapes that show off its high dispersion and adamantine luster. Sphene can be seen in shapes such as octagons, trillions, squares, rounds and fancier shapes, such as ovals, pears and cushions. Translucent to opaque stones are often cut en cabochon. Sphene can present a challenge to lapidarists, due to its brittle tenacity and softness, but is worth the effort, since when faceted and polished it yields stunning results.

Sphene Treatment

Sphene is not generally treated or enhanced, though the color can be changed to red or orange by heating. However, most sphene gemstones are untreated and naturally orange and reddish sphene is available.

Chemical Formula: CaTiSiO5 Calcium titanium silicate
Crystal Structure: Monoclinic; platy
Color: Yellow, brown, green, reddish
Hardness: 5 to 5.5 on the Mohs scale
Refractive Index: 1.843 to 2.110
Density: 3.52 to 3.54
Cleavage: Good
Transparency: Transparent to opaque
Double Refraction or Birefringence: 0.100 to 0.192
Luster: Adamantine
Fluorescence: None


Scapolite Gemstone

Sphene is known to occur with scapolite, apatite and quartz. However, sphene can be distinguished by its higher refractive index. Sphene also occurs with zircon, which has a similar high refractive index. Sphene has a similar chemical structure to tilasite, malayaite and fersmantite. Other gemstones that can be confused for sphene are chrysoberyl, dravite, golden beryl, scheelite, topaz, zircon and idocrase.

Sphene is said to be a calming and soothing stone that protects its wearer from negative energy. Additionally, sphene is thought to aid clear thinking and creativity. In traditional Hindu belief systems, sphene is associated with the Ajna chakra; also known as the third eye, or brow chakra, which is related to the mind and previous lives. Physically, sphene is thought to help alleviate muscle strain, fever and tissue inflammation.

Disclaimer: Metaphysical and Alternative Crystal Healing Powers and Properties are not to be taken as confirmed advice. Traditional, Ceremonial and Mythological Gemstone Lore is collected from various resources and does not represent the sole opinion of SETT Co., Ltd. This information is not to replace the advice of your doctor. Should you have any medical conditions, please see a licensed medical practitioner. GemSelect does not guarantee any claims or statements of healing or astrological birthstone powers and cannot be held liable under any circumstances.

Sphene’s high refractive index, dispersion and luster make it a stunning gemstone. However, it is a rare gemstone that is not often seen in jewelry. Moreover, due to sphene’s lack of hardness, it is not recommended to be worn daily in rings or jewelry that is likely to be exposed to general wear and tear. Even so, due to its remarkable brilliance, well-cut sphene gemstones do make for stunning sphene rings, as long as its occasional-wearing and care is taken to protect the stone. Sphene is best used for jewelry not prone to hard knocks and dings, such as sphen earrings or a sphene pendants, which would not be at risk of damage nearly as much as rings or bracelets. If sphene is fashioned into a ring or bracelet, protected settings such as bezel settings are best. Sphene gemstones make beautiful earrings, pendants and brooches.

Note: Buy colored gemstones by size and not by carat weight. Colored stones vary in size-to-weight ratio. Some stones are larger and others are smaller than diamonds by weight in comparison.

American TV personality, Kristin dos Santos wore a Madagascan sphene ring by Kat Florence to the 2014 Golden Globes.

In 2013, the Pimco Foundation Gallery in Southern California was host to a “Jewels of the Connoisseur” exhibition that featured rare gemstones, including a green sphene butterfly by master lapidarist, Buzz Gray and jewelry designer, Bernadine Johnston. Also faceted by Buzz Gray is an incredible 43.52 carat intense green sphene gemstone, displayed at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History in the USA.

How to clean your gemstonesSphene lacks hardness, so it should be cared for in order to prevent damage. Since household dust contains quartz, which has a Mohs scale hardness of 7, simply wiping dust from a sphene gemstone could cause scratches. The best way to clean sphene gemstones is by using soapy water and a soft cloth. Be sure to rinse well to remove soapy residue. Do not expose sphene to household chemicals, acid or excessive heat. As with most gemstones, ultrasonic cleaners and steamers are not recommended. Always remove any jewelry or gemstones before exercising, cleaning or engaging in harsh physical activities such as sports. Sphene can be easily scratched by harder substances, so it should be stored away from other gemstones. It is best to wrap gemstones in soft cloth or place them inside a fabric-lined jewelry box.





The primary ore of zinc and a gemstone with a “fire” that exceeds diamond.

Sphalerite with galena and chalcopyrite

Sphalerite with galena and chalcopyrite: A typical mineral association of sphalerite with galena and chalcopyrite. From the Huaron Mine of Peru. Specimen is about 4.3 x 3.2 x 1.8 centimeters in size. Specimen and photo by Arkenstone /

Sphalerite is a zinc sulfide mineral with a chemical composition of (Zn,Fe)S. It is found in metamorphicigneous, and sedimentary rocks in many parts of the world. Sphalerite is the most commonly encountered zinc mineral and the world’s most important ore of zinc.

Dozens of countries have mines that produce sphalerite. Recent top producers include Australia, Bolivia, Canada, China, India, Ireland, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Peru, and the United States. In the United States, sphalerite is produced in Alaska, Idaho, Missouri, and Tennessee.

The name sphalerite is from the Greek word “sphaleros” which means deceiving or treacherous. This name is in response to the many different appearances of sphalerite and because it can be challenging to identify in hand specimens. Names for sphalerite used in the past or by miners include “zinc blende,” “blackjack,” “steel jack,” and “rosin jack.”

Geologic Occurrence

Many minable deposits of sphalerite are found where hydrothermal activity or contact metamorphism has brought hot, acidic, zinc-bearing fluids in contact with carbonate rocks. There, sphalerite can be deposited in veins, fractures, and cavities, or it can form as mineralizations or replacements of its host rocks.

In these deposits, sphalerite is frequently associated with galenadolomitecalcitechalcopyritepyritemarcasite, and pyrrhotite. When weathered, the zinc often forms nearby occurrences of smithsonite or hemimorphite.

Sphalerite on dolomite

Sphalerite on dolomite: Crystals of sphalerite on dolomite with minor amounts of chalcopyrite. Specimen from the Joplin Field, Tri-State District of Missouri, USA. Specimen is about 6.5 x 4.5 x 3.5 centimeters. Specimen and photo by Arkenstone /

Chemical Composition

The chemical formula of sphalerite is (Zn,Fe)S. It is a zinc sulfide containing variable amounts of iron that substitutes for zinc in the mineral lattice. The iron content is normally less than 25% by weight. The amount of iron substitution that occurs depends upon iron availability and temperature, with higher temperatures favoring higher iron content.

Sphalerite often contains trace to minor amounts of cadmium, indium, germanium, or gallium. These rare elements are valuable and when abundant enough can be recovered as profitable byproducts. Minor amounts of manganese and arsenic can also be present in sphalerite.

Sphalerite crystals: Gem-quality crystals of yellow sphalerite from the Balmat-Edwards Zinc District of New York. Specimen is about 2.75 x 1.75 x 1.5 centimeters in size. Specimen and photo by Arkenstone / Sphalerite crystals


Sphalerite: Sphalerite with dolomite from Gilman, Colorado. Specimen is approximately 5 centimeters across.

Physical Properties

The appearance and properties of sphalerite are variable. It occurs in a variety of colors, and its luster ranges from nonmetallic to submetallic and resinous to adamantine. Occasionally it will be transparent with a vitreous luster. Sphalerite’s streak is white to yellowish brown and sometimes is accompanied by a distinct odor of sulfur. Occasionally it streaks reddish brown.

One of the most distinctive properties of sphalerite is its cleavage. It has six directions of perfect cleavage with faces that exhibit a resinous to adamantine luster. Specimens that display this distinctive cleavage are easy to identify. Unfortunately, many specimens have such a fine grain size that the cleavage is difficult to observe.

Because sphalerite often forms in veins and cavities, excellent crystals are relatively common. Sphalerite is a member of the isometric crystal system, and cubes, octahedrons, tetrahedrons, and dodecahedrons are all encountered.

Physical Properties of Sphalerite

Chemical Classification Sulfide
Color Yellow, brown, black, red, green, white, colorless
Streak White to yellowish brown, often with an odor of sulfur
Luster Nonmetallic, submetallic, resinous or adamantine
Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent
Cleavage Perfect, dodecahedral, in six directions!
Mohs Hardness 3.5 to 4
Specific Gravity 3.9 to 4.1
Diagnostic Properties Luster, cleavage, streak
Chemical Composition Zinc sulfide with variable amounts of iron, (Zn,Fe)S
Crystal System Isometric
Uses The primary ore of zinc. Often mined for minor amounts of indium, cadmium, germanium, or gallium as profitable byproducts. Mineral specimens. Faceted stones for collectors.
Sphalerite gemstones

Sphalerite gemstones: Sphalerite is occasionally cut as a faceted stone. It is a popular stone with collectors because it has a dispersion that is three times higher than the dispersion of diamond. The stones occur in a spectrum of colors ranging from yellowish green, to yellow, to orange, to red. To exhibit the excellent dispersion the stones must have a very high clarity. Sphalerite’s very low hardness (3.5 to 4 on the Mohs scale) and perfect cleavage make the mineral a very poor choice for any jewelry except pieces such as earrings and brooches that will receive very little abrasion or impact. It is considered to be a “collector’s stone.”

Sphalerite as a Gemstone?

Although sphalerite has a hardness of just 3.5 to 4 on the Mohs scale and is not suitable for most jewelry use, specimens with excellent clarity are sometimes cut into gemstones for collectors. Why? Sphalerite has a dispersion that exceeds that of all of the popular gems and is three times higher than the dispersion of diamond.

Dispersion is the ability of a material to separate white light into the colors of the spectrum as it passes through the material. Diamond is well known for its exceptional “fire” – flashes of color as the gem is moved under a source of light. These are caused by its high dispersion of 0.044. Common natural gems that have a dispersion higher than diamond are sphene at 0.051 and demantoid garnet at 0.057. Sphalerite has an incredible dispersion of 0.156. The only things that hold specimens of sphalerite back from an incredible display of brilliant “fire” are their less-than-excellent clarity and their obvious body color.

Sphalerite is a difficult stone to cut and polish. It is soft and it has cleavage. Weaknesses in the stone or minor accidents during the cutting or polishing process can easily ruin a stone. Before deciding to cut a transparent specimen of sphalerite into a gemstone, its value as a mineral specimen should be determined. If this is not done, the owner could make a costly mistake.

Author: , Ph.D.


10 Interesting Facts about Labradorite

10 Interesting Facts about Labradorite

Let’s talk about a feldspar mineral by checking Facts about Labradorite.  The percentage of anorthite in labradorite is around 50% to 70%. Labradorite is included in plagioclase series since it is calcic. Moreover, this mineral has the specific gravity in 2.68 to 2.72. It is very common to spot twinning in labradorite. Can you guess the refractive index of labradorite? It falls around 1.559 to 1.573. Just like silicates, the streak of labradorite is white. Here are other interesting facts about labradorite:

Facts about Labradorite 1: the crystal system of labradorite

The crystal system that labradorite has just like other members of plagioclase series. It has the triclinic system.

labradorite image
labradorite image

Facts about Labradorite 2: the stunning system

The crystal system of labradorite is unique and stunning. The system falls in three directions.

Facts about Labradorite 3: where to find labradorite?

Do you know where to find labradorite? It can be found in Paul’s Island. The location of the island is nearby Nain town of Labrador, Canada. Furthermore, labradorite is also spotted in Norway and other regions.


Facts about Labradorite 4: the occurrence of labradorite

Let us find out the occurrence of labradorite. The mafic igneous rocks usually contain the labradorite.

Facts about Labradorite 5: anorthosite bodies

In rare cases, labradorite can be found on the entire bodies of anorthosite. It can be found in igneous rocks like magnetite, amphiboles, pyroxenes and olivine.

Facts about Labradorite 6: labradorescence

Have you ever heard about labradorescence? Labradorescence is a term used to call the unique optical effect displayed by Labradorite. The optical effect is iridescent.

Facts about Labradorite 7: who coined the term labradorescence?

Ove Balthasar Bøggild was the person who coined the term labradoresence. He also created a definition of labradorization.

labradorite colors
labradorite colors

Facts about Labradorite 8: the explanation related to the effect and cause of labradorescence

Rayleigh (1923) and by Bøggild (1924) had defined and explained the cause and origin of labradorescence effect.

Facts about Labradorite 9: the cause of optical effect

Phase exsolution lamellar structure, which takes place in Bøggild miscibility gap, is cited as the cause of the optical effect in labradorite.

labradorite facts
labradorite facts

Facts about Labradorite 10: spectrolite

Spectrolite is another term that you need to note if you are interested to study more about Labradorite and its effect. It is used to call the varieties of gemstones of labradorite, which have high level of labradorescence.


Sodalite Gemstone Information

Sodalite Gemstone Information

About Sodalite – History and Introduction

Sodalite is typically a deep blue mineral that gets its name from its sodium content. A sodalite deposit was discovered in Greenland in 1806 and then sodalite ornaments were seen in 1891, when larger deposits of gem-quality material were found in Ontario, Canada. Apart from blue, sodalite can be gray, yellow, orange or pink. However, for gemstone use, sodalite is typically blue, and often has white veins running through it. Sodalite is also sometimes sold as “alomite”, “blue stone” and “ditroite”.

A pink variety of sodalite is called hackmanite. This purple or pink gemstone was found in gem-quality deposits in 1991, in Quebec. Hackmanite exhibits the rare gemstone phenomenon of tenebrescence (also known as reversible photochromism), which means that it changes color when exposed to sunlight, and the process is reversed when the light changes.

Violet Blue Sodalite Cabochon

Sodalite can be identified by its deep blue color and strong orange fluorescence. It can sometimes exhibit a violet tint and in opaque form often has white veins or patches running through it, which are composed of calcite. Sodalite is rare in transparent crystal form and can be gray, yellow, orange, blue, violet or colorless.

Sodalite is found in Brazil (Bahia), Greenland, India, Canada (Ontario), Namibia, Russia (the Urals) and the USA (Montana).

Sodalite Color

Sodalite can be gray, yellow, orange or pink. However, for gemstone use, sodalite is typically a deep blue color, similar to the color of lapis lazuli, and often has white veins or patches running through it.

Sodalite Clarity and Luster

Sodalite tends to exhibit a vitreous luster with a greasy luster on fractures. It is transparent to opaque, and can be interspersed with white calcite inclusions that appear like veins or patches.

Sodalite Cut and Shape

Opaque sodalite tends to be cut en cabochon. It can be cut into ovals, baguettes, rounds or fancy shapes. Transparent material is faceted, and is quite rare.

Sodalite Treatment

Synthetic sodalite has been available since 1975, and is also known as “basic sodalite”. Natural sodalite is also widely available and all reputable gem traders declare any synthetic or treated material.

Chemical Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 Basic copper carbonate
Crystal Structure: Monoclinic; short, columnar dense aggregates
Color: White, blue, gray, yellow, orange, pink
Hardness: 5.5 to 6 on the Mohs scale
Refractive Index: 1.48
Density: 2.14 to 2.40
Cleavage: Indistinct
Transparency: Transparent to opaque
Double Refraction or Birefringence: None
Luster: Vitreous to greasy
Fluorescence: Strong; orange


Hackmanite Gemstones

A violet-pink tenebrescent variety of sodalite is known as hackmanite. Sodalite can also be found in transparent, colorless form. Transparent sodalight is very rare as most sodalite gemstones are violet-blue and opaque. Lapis lazuli is similar in appearance to sodalite, and lapis can even include sodalite as a consituent. Owed to similaries, sodalite can easily be mistaken for lapis lazuli. However, lapis lazuli has a higher specific gravity (density), ranging from 2.5 to 3. Moreover, lapis lazuli is technically defined as a rock, whereas sodalite is a pure mineral by itself.

Sodalite can also be mistaken for blue azurite (also called chessylite) because of its similar blue azure color. However, azurite has a lower hardness rating based on Mohs scale of mineral hardness, ranging from only 3.5 to 4, and azurite is composed of basic copper carbonate. Dumortierite is also similar to sodalite in color, but has a higher Mohs hardness of 7 (up to 8.5 in aggregate form). Lazulite has a similar color and hardness to sodalite, but lacks the fluorescence of sodalite.

Sodalite is said to bring logic, inner peace, and calming energy. It is also believed to protect its wearer from negative energy and to help those who wear it to see the positive sides of others. In traditional Hindu belief systems, sodalite is associated with Vishuddha, or the throat chakra. This chakra relates to creation and self-expression. Physically, Vishuddha is linked to the thyroid gland. Sodalite is a non-traditional birthstone for those born in December or under the sign of Sagittarius. In feng shui, sodalite possesses water energy and is thought to benefit occupational domains. Sodalite is said to assist athletes by improving endurance and motivation to achieve goals. Additionally, sodalite sometimes referred to as a “poet’s stone” because it is thought to be conducive to writers. Physically, sodalite is considered to be beneficial for the glands and helpful for weight loss, insomnia, calcium deficiency and the sinuses.

Disclaimer: Metaphysical and Alternative Crystal Healing Powers and Properties are not to be taken as confirmed advice. Traditional, Ceremonial and Mythological Gemstone Lore is collected from various resources and does not represent the sole opinion of SETT Co., Ltd. This information is not to replace the advice of your doctor. Should you have any medical conditions, please see a licensed medical practitioner. GemSelect does not guarantee any claims or statements of healing or astrological birthstone powers and cannot be held liable under any circumstances.

Sodalite is a fairly versatile gemstone that can be used in a variety of gemstone jewelry designs. Sodalite beads are popular in beaded necklaces, earrings, and bracelets. Beads can be spherical, tubular, square or tumbled. Sodalite also makes attractive cabochon pendants, rings and earrings. Sodalite can be set in silver, gold or copper. It can be wire-wrapped or used in tribal-style jewelry. Sodalite looks stunning by itself or teamed with white gemstones, such as pearls, quartz or topaz. Since sodalite is rather soft, care should always be taken when wearing sodalite gemstone jewelry, particularly when wearing sodalite rings.

Note: Buy colored gemstones by size and not by carat weight. Colored stones vary in size-to-weight ratio. Some stones are larger and others are smaller than diamonds by weight in comparison.

Evald Nielsen, a Danish silversmith and master of the Goldsmith’s Guild of Copenhagen, sold jewelry to people from Denmark, Germany and the USA. He created some unique Art Nouveau pieces with sodalite stones that are now collector’s items.

World-renowned Greek jewelry designer, Ilias Lalaounis, has used sodalite in a number of his golden creations. A Lalaounis sodalite and 18 karat gold necklace fetched $10,000, plus premiums, at a Bonhams auction. An 18 karat gold and sodalite jewelry suite by Lalaounis was sold for $24,525 at Christie’s in 2009.

Rolex have used sodalite in the dials of watches for ladies.

Sodalite is also used for decorative stone panels in tables and suchlike. An eighteenth century Qing Dynasty sodalite plaque in a bronze frame was sold for $44,797 at a Christie’s auction in Paris, in December 2013.

How to clean your gemstonesSodalite is considered to be fairy tough, but it is also fairly soft at 5.5 to 6 on the Mohs scale. It’s softer than many gemstones, but with care, jewelry and ornaments can last for many generations. Sodalite can be quite sensitive to strong pressure, high temperatures and harsh household chemicals and cleaners. Avoid exposing sodalite to bleach or sulphuric acid. Most sodalite can be cleaned using warm, soapy water, but some dyed materials may not be stable. For dyed or impregnated stones, it’s best to test a small area first to ensure stability. Wipe down stones using only a soft cloth and be sure to rinse well to remove any soapy residue.

Always remove any sodalite gems or jewelry before exercising, playing sports or engaging in vigorous household chores. When storing your sodalite gemstones, store them separately from other gems and jewelry to prevent scratches and fractures. It is best to wrap your stones using a soft cloth and place them into a fabric-lined jewelry box for extra protection.



Sillimanite Gemstones

Sillimanite Gemstones

Sillimanite Crystal

Sillimanite Crystal

Sillimanite is a type of aluminum silicate that is related to both andalusite and kyanite. In fact, these three minerals are polymorphs – they share the same chemical composition but have different crystal structures. Kyanite is formed in a lower temperature and higher pressure environment, while andalusiteforms at lower temperature and lower pressure conditions. Sillimanite forms at higher temperatures and higher pressures.

Sillimanite is named after the American chemist, Benjamin Silliman (1779-1864). Silliman was one of the first American professors of science and taught at Yale University. He was originally trained as a lawyer and taught law at Yale. The president of the university proposed that Silliman study chemistry and natural history, and then assume a new professorship in the sciences at Yale. Silliman thus became an important chemist and geologist and discovered the constituent elements of many minerals. He was also the very first person to distill petroleum.

Sillimanite Cat's Eye

Sillimanite Cat’s Eye

Sillimanite has a hardness of 6.5 to 7.5 on the Mohs scale and a vitreous to silky luster. It has a refractive index of 1.655 to 1.684; approximately the same as that of spodumene. Its specific gravity is 3.23 to 3.27, placing it between apatite and diopside on the density scale. Like diamond, topaz and fluorite, sillimanite has perfect cleavage.

Sillimanite occurs in a number of colors, ranging from colorless to gray-white, yellowish, brownish and bluish. Sillimanite is rarely transparent. Sillimanite also occurs in a fibrous form sometimes known as fibrolite, so named because the mineral appears like a bunch of fibres twisted together. Some of this fibrous sillimanite displays chatoyancy (the cat’s eye effect), often in an attractive violet-brown shade.

Throughout history, sillimanite has been considered a rare gemstone that is known mainly to collectors. Deposits of sillimanite have been found in Burma, Sri Lanka, Kenya and the USA. Recent finds in India have made sillimanite more widely available, though it is still classified as a collector’s gem.



What are some less known facts about Shiva lingams?

What are some less known facts about Shiva lingams?

The Shiva Linga and its Meaning

The sexual symbolism of Tantra, like the subject of sexuality in general, has always engaged the human mind. The modern mind seems to be obsessed with it as well. Many people into Tantra, as well as most of the scholars who write on it, seem unable to move beyond the physical suggestions of these symbols to their spiritual indications. This has kept the study and practice of Tantric Yoga at a superficial level in which its deeper cosmic and creative energies remain lost.

There is an inclination to reduce the Shiva linga and Shakti yoni, the two main Tantric symbols of ascending and descending forces – which are often represented by upright conical stones for the Shiva linga and ring stones or basis for the Shakti yoni – to merely the male and female sex organs, which is but one of their many reflections, and their erotic glorification. There is a tradition of Tantric sexuality of mithuna which uses sacred sex as part of Yoga practice. But it is not the only practice of Tantric Yoga, much less the highest, and when done is integrated into a much larger array of practices.

It would be wrong to look at the linga and the yoni only in human sexual terms, just as it would be to see the Deities of Shiva and Shakti as only symbols of sexuality. Sexuality, no doubt, is the strongest of our biological and psychological urges. Yet sexuality reflects greater and higher forces, of which it is but an outer biological manifestation.

The polarity of forces that we discover in sexuality is mirrored in the great dualities of nature from electricity and magnetism, to the forces of fire and water, the sun and the moon, and the forms of the mountain and the valley. It is this universal duality and polarity that is the basis of Tantric Yoga, working with it, and through it returning to the pure unity behind it. Sexuality is an important force that we must understand in the process, whether we choose to express it in a human relationship or renounce it for a more solitary path of practice.

The Shiva linga is often portrayed in an upright conical form much like the male sexual organ, but there are many other types of lingas as well. The linga is the symbol of the universal power, the cosmic masculine force or the Shiva principle. It has many forms in nature.

In the Sanskrit language, the word linga refers to a ‘chief mark’ or ‘characteristic’ of something. As a term, it is not per se a synonym for the male sexual organ, as some would believe. Linga indicates what is outstanding and determinative. In this regard, the male sexual organ can be said to be the distinguishing characteristic or linga of a man at a physical level, but linga in other contexts can have quite a different meaning.

In Yoga philosophy, the term linga refers to the subtle body, which is the dominant principle in our nature over the physical body. The Shiva linga is also the subtle body and can indicate the upper region from the heart to the head. The linga is a place where energy is held, generated and sustained.

The problem is that the modern mind, particularly since Freud, often tries to use sex as the main means of interpreting life, extending even to art and spirituality, which we try to understand according to sexual symbolism or the sex life of the persons involved! This ‘sexual reductionism’ misses the deeper and broader sensitivities and inspirations that people have.

Clearly sexuality is there for most everyone, but real spirituality and genuine creativity are not! Some scholars have gone so far as to try to reduce Hindu Devatas, Gods and Goddesses to sexual symbols, as if a figure like Ganesha, with his head cut off by his father, was nothing more than another manifestation of the Oedipal complex, missing his deeper yogic implications altogether. Of course, such psychological studies have been done on Christianity and Judaism as well. Freud, himself a Jew, tried to reduce Moses to the Oedipal complex, starting off this trend. Such studies do not help us understand what the spiritual path is all about, but get us further caught in our biological impulses as the primary factors of life. Naturally, such efforts to turn a religion into a sexual neurosis is not appreciated by Hindus any more than by Christians and Jews!

Symbolisms of the Linga

The Shiva linga represents the ascending energy of consciousness and life in nature. We see this in such forms as the mountain, the thunder cloud, the tree, and the upright human being. Many lingas like that at Kedarnath – the most important Shiva site in the Himalayas – are rocks in the shape of small mountains. Many other lingas are associated with light, the lingas of the Sun, the Moon and Fire. There are the twelve famous Jyotirlingas or light forms of Shiva at twelve special temples throughout India.

The state of Tamil Nadu has special Shiva linga forms for the five elements with lingas of earth, water, fire, air and ether at special temples in the region. In this regard, each element has its Shiva linga or determinative force. The famous hill of Arunachala, where the great enlightened sage Ramana Maharshi stayed, is said to be the fire linga of lord Shiva.

Other Shiva lingas are associated with gold or crystal, the light powers in the metal kingdom. The Shiva linga is often described in terms of light, crystal or transparency. Shiva himself is said to be pure light or light in its primal undifferentiated state, Prakasha matra.

The Shiva linga is connected to the upward pointed triangle, which is also the symbol of fire. The linga is present in the male sexual organ both in plants and in animals. But we should not ignore its other forms in recognizing that. The worship of the linga is connected more generally to a worship of pillars, obelisks, standing stones and pyramids. Tantric linga worship is connected to Vedic pillar worship (the Vedic stambha, skambha, dharuna), which has parallels throughout the ancient world and in indigenous cultures in general who can still perceive the spiritual powers behind the formations of nature.

The Shiva linga is often a pillar of light. In special Vedic fire rituals, the fire could be made to rise in the shape of a pillar which could also then take the shape of a man! In fact, the term Dharma originally refers to what upholds things and can be symbolized by a pillar. The Shiva linga is the universal pillar of Dharma. The pillar is also an inner symbol indicating the erect spine and concentrated mind.

In terms of our human nature, there are several lingas or characteristic marks. The force of Prana is the linga or pillar force upholding the physical body according to the currents that emanate from it. This is the inner ‘Prana Linga’. Our deeper intelligence or Buddhi provides us the power of insight to discern higher realities, the ‘Buddhi Linga’. The Atman or higher Self is the ultimate linga or determinative force of our nature that remains steady and elevated (transcendent) throughout all of our life experience, the ‘Atma Linga’.

The linga and the yoni always go together, first of all on the level of opposites, as the upward and downward pointed triangles. The linga with the yoni below it, the standing stone and the ring base, show the union of male and female energies, not just in sexuality, but also as electro-magnetic forces.

In addition, the linga in its movement creates a yoni, just as a point in its movement can create a circle. We can see this in the circular movement of the stars, planets and nebulae, as well as many other diverse phenomena in the world of nature. The central luminary is the linga and its field of revolution is the yoni. The planets form a yoni or circle as they revolve around the Sun as the linga, of the solar system, its central principle or axis. Yet the Sun itself is revolving around other stars and creating a yoni or circle of its own.

Stonehenge, and other similar sacred sites that have standing stones formed into great circles, show the union of the linga and the yoni, the cosmic male and female or Shiva-Shakti principles. The linga and the yoni are also united in the chakra or the wheel, with the linga as the axis and the yoni as the circumference. The Hindu usage of chakras in ritual and in art also reflects these two powers. Each chakra of the subtle body shows the union of the Shiva and Shakti energies operative at its particular level of manifestation.

The Shiva energy is the upward current running through the spine or Sushumna and the Shakti energy is the horizontal current through which it travels, forming the various lotuses of the chakras. Together they form a spiral of forces. Both forces are necessary to create this dynamic motion.

The experience of the Shiva linga in Yogic meditation is an experience of a pillar of light, energy, peace and eternity, expanding the mind, opening the inner eye and bringing deep peace and steadiness to the heart. From it radiate waves, currents, circles and whirlpools of Shakti spreading this grace, love and wisdom to all. To concentrate our awareness in the linga is one of the best ways of meditation, calming the mind and putting us in touch with our inner Being and Witness beyond all the agitation and sorrow of the world.

In Ayurvedic healing, the creation of the Prana linga or concentration of Prana at a subtle level is what allows deep healing and rejuvenation to occur. In Vedic astrology, the Shiva linga represents the power of light behind the Sun, Moon, planets and stars. In Vastu Shastra, the Shiva linga is used to stabilize the spiritual and vital energy in a house, as a conduit of cosmic forces.

To understand the ultimate secrets of life we must be able to look at the primal powers of existence, including the needs for sex and food, according to their broader connections and universal implications. Human sexuality is only one of the many manifestations of the cosmic forces of duality, of a greater Divine sexuality as it were, which transcends all creaturely existence.

We must learn to see the cosmic energy behind human sexuality rather than try to reduce spiritual polarities to our own physical and emotional inclinations. This is another aspect of Yoga in which we must look beyond human psychology to the universal consciousness.

The Shiva Linga and its Meaning

Unknown facts of Shiv Ling:

  1. Of all the flowers used in Abhishek pooja of Shiv ling , Water lily flower is of the highest order in terms of result. It removes five sins of highest magnitude (Killing a Brahmin, Killing child, Killing a woman, Killing a Cow and killing a fetus . The one who offers 1000 flowers to Lord Shiva will get the identity of Deity and Shiv Padh.
  1. Shiv Ling can be installed at home with love and devotion. A SHIV Ling is 1 to 5 inches it is an ordinary one. If it is 6 to 10 inches it is medium. If it is 11 inches to 15 inches it is the best one.
  2. you should do ‘Achaman’ (A pooja ritual) reciting …

OM Namah Shambhave Swaha,

OM Shankaraya Swaha,

OM Shantaya Swaha.’

  1. When nobody is there in the house, the SHIVA Ling should be immersed in water or covered totally with Vibhuti. By doing this, the benefit of daily Shivaradhana would accrue. This principle applies to SHIVA Linga only and not to the Idol of Shiva.
  2. Shiva is happy even if you offer water to him.
  3. Shiv Ling with different materials and its result.

Types of Shiv lings:

1 . Soil (Parthiva) Ling :

If this Ling is worshipped, Ishta Kamya Siddhi is achieved. That means all desires will be fulfilled. soil Ling is also called Parthiva Ling.SHIVA Ling that is made of black sticky soil is called Parthiva Ling. The worship of soil Ling will grant completeness. worship done to Ling made up of burnt soil, is very good.

As “OM” is the best of all Hymns, in the same way Parthiva Ling is the best of all Lings. It is worthy of worship.

2. Stone Ling :

If Stone Ling is worshiped, all Siddhis are attained.Everything is obtained, Fulfillment is achieved.

3. Crystal (Spatika) Ling :

Fulfills all wishes. Worship of this Ling, will give brilliance, Fame, honour, all enjoyments. Laxmi Devi Always worships Shiva wearing this Linga.

4. Padmaraga Ling :

Worship of this Ling will give Health & Prosperity. Yamadharma Raja always wears this Linga and Worships ShIva.

5 . Kashmira Ling :

Worship of this Linga will enable accomplishment of meditation and ecstatic bliss.

6. Puskhraj (Yellow Sapphire) Ling :

Worship of this Linga will bestow the grace of Guru and SHIVA.

7. Indraneela (Blue Sapphire) Ling :

Worship of this Linga will grant kingdom and enjoyments. Vishnu always wear this Linga and worships Shiva.

8. Gomedh Ling :

Worship of this Linga would wipe out the Planetary defects that is all defects accrued out of Navagrahas.

9. Coral Ling :

Worship of this Linga will deliver permanent enjoyment. This Linga is worn by serpent gods while they worship SHIVA.

10 . Pearl Ling :

Worship of this Linga would eliminate all troubles.Will give all kinds of wealth and auspicious things. This Linga is worn by Laxmi and Vinayaka.

11. Silver Ling 

Worship of this Linga will give all enjoyment and prosperity. Vasuvus do Shivaradhana always wearing this Silver Linga..

12. Golden Ling :

This Shiv Ling grants liberation. Worship of this Ling will have fulfillment of all materialistic wishes like Prosperity, wisdom of mind, health, all comforts. Brahma always wears this Ling and worships SHIVA. Due to the worship of golden Linga, one will get Brahma Gnan and Liberation too.

13. Diamond Ling :

Worship of this Linga will grant kingdom and all luxuries. Sun always wears this Linga and worships SHIVA.

14. Parad Ling :

Worship of this Linga will deliver prosperity; 8 Wealths; Money & grains; 8-Divine powers, and Sacred knowledge. This is the greatest divine SHIVA Linga. Mercury is the semen of SHIVA. In Chemistry, they call this mercury as semen of SHIVA even now. Rasavada Shavities said that with worship of Mercury Linga, emancipation is attainable.

15. Brass or Bronze Ling :

One who worships this shiv ling will attain liberation

16 . Iron or Lead Ling :

Worship of this Ling will result in destruction of enemies

17. Ashta Loha (8-Precious Metals) Ling :

Worship of this Linga will increase Life-span, Health. With worship of this Linga, Leprosy bodily ailments and all diseases get cured.

18. Ashta Dhatu (8-Minerals) Ling :

Worship of this Linga will enable all divine powers and destruction of skin diseases.

19. Dhatuja Ling :

Worship this Linga will give prosperity.

20. Daruja Ling :

Worship of this Linga will give luxuries.

21. Ratna (Gem) Ling :

Worship of this Linga will give abundant money. The desires will be fulfilled and all auspicious things will happen.

Saraswathi Devi wears this Ling and worships SHIVA.

22. Vaidurya (Jade) Ling :

Worship of this Linga will give victory, all powers will become all powerful , destruction of all enemies, removal of misfortune caused by evil eye.

23. Bana Ling :

Banasura is a great devotee of SHIVA. He amassed great powers of penance. He is the great-grand-son of Prahlada. He has done severe penance to please SHIVA, on the bank of river Narmada. When SHIVA manifested and offered to endow a boon , he requested SHIVA to permanently be in the Tapobhoomi in the form of Ling. SHIVA granted that boon. Due to the power of this boon, the Lings that are found naturally and abundantly in river Narmada are called Bana Lings.

It is the command of SHIVA that the Bana Linga is the most superior even more than the valuable Golden, Diamond and Mercury Lings. Because, SHIVA has incarnated on earth in the form of Bana Linga to salvage the entire universe, to grant easy, fast happiness & pleasures , to grant eternal bliss, and help to attain liberation.Hence properly worship Bana Linga and get the grace of SHIVA.

                     Shiva Linga has nothing to do with any sexual organs. It is the bluntest of myths.

                In Sanskrit, word “Lingam” means micro form or subtle form. Many wrongly translate the word “Lingam” as “Phallus” or male sexual organ, which is incorrect. The correct translation of “Phallus” in Sanskrit is “Shishna” and not “Lingam”.

For instance, a person with name “Ramalingam” doesn’t mean “Phallus of Rama” but the micro form of Rama. Similarly, “Jyotirlingam” doesn’t mean a “burning phallus” but rather an enlightening micro form of God.

                          Since the real form of the God is not known to anybody and everybody is not skilled enough to create a statue to worship the supreme God, Ligam form was adopted so that any devotee can create the shape even by hands, do the Pran Pratishtha and can offer the prayers with suggested rituals.

Regarding the lower part of Lingam that is depicted as female genital or Yoni, that is also a myth. Since Lingam is worshipped mainly with Panchsnana, five types of holy baths viz. water(representing Ganga), honey, ghee, curd and milk and the same is considered the Prasada, hence linga is created on a base in temples from where semi liquid Prasada can be collected with ease and doesn’t fall to the feet of the devotees.

The Lingam Purana states:

प्रधानं प्रकृतिर यदाहुर्लिगंउत्तम ।

गंध-वर्ण-रसहिंनं शब्द-स्पर्शादिवर्जितं ॥


the foremost Lingam which is devoid of colour, taste, hearing, touch etc is spoken of as Prakriti or nature.

The nature itself is a Lingam (or symbol) of Shiva. When we see nature, we infer the presence of its creator – Shiva. Shiva Lingam is the mark of Shiva the creator, Shiva the sustainer and Shiva the destructor. It also dispels another myth in which Shiva is considered only as a destructor.

Another authentic reference comes from Skanda Purana where lingam is clearly indicated as the supreme Shiva from where the whole universe is created and where it finally submerge.

आकाशं लिंगमित्याहु: पृथ्वी तस्य पीठिका।

आलय: सर्व देवानां लयनार्लिंगमुच्यते ॥

(स्कन्द पुराण)

The endless sky (that great void which contains the entire universe) is the Linga, the Earth is its base. At the end of time the entire universe and all the Gods finally emerge in the Linga itself.

Now this should clarify the settle the doubts once and forever.

Forms of Shiva Lingam

Shiva Lingam is worshiped in two common forms – Chala (Moveable) Lingam and Achala (Non-Moveable or Fixed) Lingam.

Chala Lingam (Moveable Lingam)

The Chala Lingams may be kept in the shrine of one’s own home for worship or prepared temporarily with materials like sand, clay, dough or rice for worship and dispensed with after the worship. Another form of the Chala Lingams can also be worn on the body as a pendent in the necklace etc. Chala Lingams are often made of quartz, mercury or metals.

Achala Lingam (Fixed Lingam)

Achala Lingams (or fixed Lingams) are installed in temples and are un-moveable once they are installed. There are rigid rules for achala Lingams which must be followed. Achala Lingams must be offered prayers at fixed times and without failed and greater sanctity is maintained. Usually Lingams are made of black stones.

The Appearance and significance of Shiva Lingam

A Shiva Lingam is generally made up of black or white stones, marbles or metals or Quartz. A Shiva Lingam has three distinct parts which are considered as portions of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. The Lower part represents Brahma, the middle Vishnu and the upper and the most prominent represents Shiva. Thus Shiva Lingam represents all the three powers in one- as the Param Braham or SupremeShiva.

Lord Sri Ram created a lingam with sand and worshipped Lord Shiva before attacking to Lanka:

          This form is used not just for Lord Shiva but also for Lord Vishnu in the form of  Lord Shaligrama.

Maata Vaishno Devi in basic form:

Rather, in ancient times, all Gods and Goddesses were worshipped in the basic form of stone.

Shiva Shell

Shiva Shell

Shiva Shell

Shiva Shell sometimes called Pacific Cat’s Eye have been believed to open the Third Eye Chakra which transform and mute negative energy. It is a stunning natural gem made of calcium carbonate and have brown and black band that are carved into the shape of the eye. Lord Shiva other than India is worshiped in countries, Tibet, and Sri Lanka, the gem’s name are derived from the Lord Shiva third eye in the middle of the idol’s forehead. Shiva’s eye is a significant divination and transforming crystal which help to find a new path in life.It gives us the vision of the Third Eye and has Water energy it is believed to sharpen the wearer’s intuition, which in turn enhances the discernment and deepen the understanding. It is a stone of wisdom which help to understand our world and events. Shiva’s eye proves to be good if it is held in the north area of an individual’s home and is supposed to be associated with life history and career path. The flowing energy of this stone balances the push of life currents and will protect or guard against its ill effects. The Eye of Shiva or so-called Pacific Cat’s Eye is used principally as a meditation crystal to understand yourself and the issues that are happening in life. It is practiced to facilitate deep understanding of your inner self so you can effectively dispense with the outside universe in a manner that is sizable for your heart. It is reported that it will reflect and fight back against the Evil Eye, and also helps with premonition efforts.

Shiva Shell contains the quality of a major Hindu deity Shiva means auspicious is the destroyer or transformer. As a special piece of jewelry, the Shiva Eye has an inimitable charisma and as a protective, lucky stone it symbolizes the “Third Eye of Shiva” and watches over the one who has it. The Third Eye represents the eye of knowledge and wisdom, the essence of the omniscience of the god of fertility, Shiva, who unites male and female. The coil on the rear of the Shiva Eye symbolizes development and apparent movement and is a substantial and important symbol for security against bad energies. It rolls up and strengthens optimistic energies. The Shiva Eye has a collectively positive effect on an individual’s natural well being. This organic gemstone commonly known as cat’s eye washed up along a riverbank and is carved into the anatomy of an eye to represent the eye of Shiva.

Healing Properties

Shiva shell or Shiva Eye a protective covering at the orifice of the Turban snail shell symbolizes the creation, preservation and destruction of all from the flow of life, the constant change in the world, spiritual knowledge to creative visualization. Known as mermaids’ money it is thought to be a good luck charm for fishermen. The eye of Shiva is supposed to assist in the accrual of wealth.

  • Physical Healer

Shiva’s Eye stones have been highly venerated in many cultures for thousands of years. This valued crystal has long been believed to provide protection against evil and enhance creativity, as well as kindness. Physically, this stone is used in crystal healing for kidneys, pancreas, and liver, lymph nodes, spleen, and leukemia issues. Along with optimism and generosity, it is used to balance self-esteem.  When held close to the body, it amplifies and radiates the energy of vibration as these vibrations are subtle, but they can be applied to assist you manage life’s daily problems.

  • Emotional Healer

Shiva Eye or Third Eye Agate stimulates psychic powers and assist in developing an awareness of the Divine without losing the connection to the earth. This unique crystal has a structure that allows vibrations to add together, it calms an overactive mind and energizes the imagination by bringing in new ideas. It helps get rid of the emotional drain of daily procedure and being taken down by obligation, it awakens a sense of adventure and change as it is considered a tremendous tool for giving back joy and spontaneity back to one’s spirit. It is an uplifting crystal, helping to banish fears and insecurities while enhancing faith and reliance in oneself and faith in the world. It encourages reflection and introspection, bringing the clarity of rational thought and intuitive wisdom to help drive out an illusion, find out the root cause of an issue, and get one to repose. Third Eye Agates serve best when worn or carried in a sacred space.

  • Spiritual Healer

Shiva Eye enhances the psychic abilities, intuition, extrasensory perception, mental imagery, and concentration. This Eye is used to understand dreams but is besides a powerful ward against bad dreams and nightmares. Put it beside your bed or the bed of a child having bad dreams.

Eye of Shiva also called the Brow Chakra is a stone for the Third Eye. We examine ourselves and the outside world, interpret what we discover and are aware of ourselves and the universe through the brow Chakra. The brow Chakra interprets the world – our inner world (self), and the world (mass) that comes into the body. It controls the energy flow within the torso and is said to be a code breaker. It is the pattern maker and shows the path of understanding. It balances the imperative and the inconsequential impressions of the life. This stone is also used for general protection and deflect the evil eye; it repels negativity and prevents the psychic attack.

  • Heals and Balances Chakra

Shiva’s eye is known to protect wearers from all forms of negativity help to concentrate the mind, and aid in decision-making. The stone is believed to increase stamina and self-confidence and have a cooling effect on the body. Shiva’s eye affects the point where Shiva and Shakti become one.

As and when individual tune this stone into the field of energy that encompasses the Divine Mind, he make contact with the sacredness. This gemstone resonate the sacred energy, via the universal mind for all who use it. Its resonance within the third eye chakra or brow chakra is about individuals’ visionary abilities which enhance a direct connection to the higher self.

This stone helps you to recognize that you can use the aspects of the pineal gland and help to see the uniqueness of the self. Spiritually, tells one that he is a separate individual within the whole.

This stone will boost your Pranic energy and point of verve as you get in touch with the Divine.

Shiva Shell Facts

Facts about Shiva Shell

  • The Stone is the key symbol of the mystical terminology of alchemy, symbolizing perfection, enlightenment, and heavenly bliss.
  • A great Hindu sagacious wrote about the spiritual triumph of Gnosis using the metaphor of the Shiva eye stone.
  • This stone is believed to transmute the dense physical body into a body of light.
  • Eye of Shiva explains man’s path to immortal divinity.
  • In the Orient, Shiva’s eye is highly venerated as a preserver of good luck, the feeling being that it guards the owner’s wealth and it protects him from poverty.
  • The visual phenomenon of this stone brings about the appearance of the semblance of a shiva third eye in the rock.

Metaphysical Properties

Shiva’s eyes are famous and popular to manufacture amazing jewelry. The white shiva eyes come as silver fashion jewelry. Though, the story and lineage of the shiva eye are rather amorphous. Along one side of the Shiva’s eye, a shell is a beautiful spiral. Along the polar side of the coil is a mesh of colors that resembles an eye.The Eye of Shiva has a solid representation in Hinduism. It is the third eye in the brow of the Hindu God Shiva. Representing wisdom, it is conceived to possess the power to see beyond the obvious. It represents the flow of life the constant variety of the cosmos, spiritual knowledge, and ingenious artistic visualization. Form of Reiki the swirl of this stone symbolizes an energy force and strength. Eye of Shiva Shell is a wonderful gift because of its natural beauty blended with its spiritual meanings.

Shiva Shell Color

These natural shiva eye agates from India are brown and black banded characteristically, they just alluded to multi-colored convex surface and elevations are green, orange, creamy and white with color patterns similar. The chiefly white planar side has a thin brown spiral with its source near the middle.Shiva Shell Colors


Serpentine Gemstone Information

Serpentine Gemstone Information

Serpentine is a gem-quality hydrated magnesium silicate, usually green, yellowish-green, or brownish-green in color. Its name is thought to be derived from its serpent-like green colors. Serpentine is not just a gemstone, but rather, it is a group of minerals which includes up to 20 different related members. Although there are a variety of serpentines, there are only two basic aggregate structures of serpentine which include antigorite and chrysotile.

Antigorite is a platy variety of serpentine, usually more solid and gemmy than chrysotile. Chrysotile is a fibrous group of serpentine minerals which can be subdivided into four distinct varieties based on crystallization. Very fine fibrous chrysotile is one of the many types of asbestos; asbestos is known to cause ‘asbestosis’, a deadly condition of the lungs caused by the inhalation of fine chrysotile fibers. Since asbestos is recognized as a health hazard, only the antigorite form of serpentine is used as gemstones. Serpentine minerals are metamorphic alterations of peridotite and pyroxene, and because alterations may be incomplete in many cases, the physical properties of each specimen can vary tremendously. Gemstone quality serpentine (antigorite) is often referred to as ‘noble serpentine’ or ‘precious’ serpentine.

Transparent Serpentine Gemstone

Serpentine is a basic magnesium silicate, with many specimens containing iron as well. Other elements in small quantities may also be present, including chromium, nickel and cobalt. Most serpentine rocks are translucent to opaque with a hardness score that can range from 2.5 to 5.5, depending on exact composition. Serpentine is fairly soft and light, with a specific gravity (density) ranging from 2.44 to 2.62, which is slightly lower than quartz. Its luster can be greasy, waxy or silky. It can sometimes be confused with nephrite jade, but nephrite is much harder, tougher and has a less greasy luster.

Serpentine varieties are found in many places in the world, including Canada (Quebec), Afghanistan, Britain, Cyprus, Greece, China, Russia (the Ural Mountains), France, Korea, Austria, India, Myanmar (Burma), New Zealand, Norway, Italy and the United States.

Serpentine Color

Serpentine is usually greenish in color, but it can also vary from white or yellowish to gray, and from brown to black. Most serpentine rocks are veiny or spotted and may exhibit areas of chatoyancy, which can appear lighter or darker depending on the viewing angle.

Serpentine Clarity and Luster

Serpentine is typically translucent to opaque and rarely semi-transparent. Most serpentine contains impurities of calcite and other minerals. The inclusions can cause white or black veining, marbling or spotting. When polished, serpentine has a greasy to silky luster.

Serpentine Cut and Shape

Serpentine is typically cut en cabochon or carved as an ornamental gemstone. The most common shapes includes ovals and rounds. Most serpentine gemstones are cut with very high domes to bring out desirable patterns.

Serpentine Treatment

Serpentine is not known to be treated or enhanced in any way.

Chemical Formula: Mg6[(OH)8lSi4O10]; Basic magnesium silicate
Crystal Structure: Monoclinic; microcrystalline
Color: Green, yellowish, brown
Hardness: 2.5 to 5.5
Refractive Index: 1.560 to 1.571
Density: 2.44 to 2.62
Cleavage: None
Transparency: Semitransparent to opaque
Double Refraction or Birefringence: 0.008 to 0.014
Luster: Greasy, waxy, silky
Fluorescence: Weak; greenish (Williamsite)

Please refer to our Gemstone Glossary for details of gemology-related terms.

Olivine - Peridot
Olivine – Peridot

A number of trade names have been introduced to refer to serpentine variants, including ‘bastite’, ‘bowenite’, ‘connemara’, ‘verd-antique’ and ‘Williamsite’. Terms such as ‘new jade’, ‘noble serpentine’ and ‘precious serpentine’, are also used, but these are not used in gemology circles. ‘Arizona tiger’s eye’ and ‘California tiger’s eye’ are names often used for serpentine rocks from the USA that exhibit chatoyant bands caused by aligned chrysotile fibers.

Some other well-known and popular similar or related materials include:

Asbestos: A very fine and fibrous chrysotile serpentine.
Bastite: A silky and shiny pseudomorph of serpentine.
Bowenite: A massive, usually greenish serpentine with densely packed fibers.
Connemara: An intergrown rock composed of marble and serpentine.
Deweylite: Chrysotile serpentine with traces of stevensite or various talc minerals occasionally used as a gemstone.
Garnierite: Nickel-rich green serpentine minerals, sometimes called ‘nepouite’.
Retinalite: Antigorite serpentine with a very waxy luster, usually yellowish.
Ricolite: A fine grained and banded serpentine rock.
Satalite: A fibrous serpentine rock which often exhibits cat’s eye chatoyancy.
Serpentinite: A rock composed of mostly serpentine minerals and traces of pyroxene, olivine, magnetite, calcite, dolomite and amphibole minerals.
Verde-Antique: A dark-green serpentine rock with white veins of calcite.
Williamsite: An oil-green serpentine often with black spots or inclusions.

The name ‘serpentine’ is thought to be derived from ‘serpent’ as its color is said to resemble that of a snake. Serpentine has been used for centuries by many cultures as an ornamental and healing stone. Serpentine was thought to protect against disease and evil sorcery. Serpentine is a strong stone of meditation and it is believed to help its wearers find inner-peace.

In ancient times, serpentine was used in offerings to gods and goddesses to request blessings. Physically, serpentine is thought to protect against the poison of snakes and other venomous creatures. It is also thought to help alleviate pains of the kidney, stomach cramps and tension. Serpentine is best for stimulating the crown chakra, but can be used for clearing all chakras.

Disclaimer: Metaphysical and Alternative Crystal Healing Powers and Properties are not to be taken as confirmed advice. Traditional, Ceremonial and Mythological Gemstone Lore is collected from various resources and does not represent the sole opinion of SETT Co., Ltd. This information is not to replace the advice of your doctor. Should you have any medical conditions, please see a licensed medical practitioner. GemSelect does not guarantee any claims or statements of healing or astrological birthstone powers and cannot be held liable under any circumstances.

Serpentine is not often used for jewelry owing to its lack of hardness, though some materials are a bit harder because of varying compositions. Serpentine could be worn as earrings, pins, pendants or brooches; but its use as a ring should be limited to occasional-wear and well-protected settings. Serpentine can often exhibit an attractive silky chatoyancy and luster that no other gemstone can imitate. Most serpentine is fashioned into decorative gemstones or made into ornamental gemstone carvings, but if worn with care, serpentine can be incorporated into wonderful custom jewelry designs for both ladies’ and gentlemen’s jewelry.

Note: Buy colored gemstones by size and not by carat weight. Colored stones vary in size-to-weight ratio. Some stones are larger and others are smaller than diamonds by weight in comparison.

A high-grade and almost pure form of green serpentine from the historic Punjab province in South Asia was known for many centuries as ‘sang-i-yashm’, or in English as ‘false jade’; it was used by local craftsmen for many generations as a carving material to create swords and dagger handles. The Maoris of New Zealand were known to carve ornamental objects from locally sourced serpentine that they called ‘tangiwai’, meaning ‘tears’ in their native language.

How to clean your gemstonesSerpentine is rather soft and fragile, especially compared to most jewelry gemstones. It is susceptible to acid, so harsh chemicals and cleaners should be avoided. Use only a soft cloth and warm water to clean serpentine gemstones. Chrysotile serpentine may exhibit basal cleavage and conchoidal fracture. It also has a brittle and splintery tenacity so it should be protected from rough wearing and harsh weathering conditions. Always remove serpentine jewelry before exercising, playing sports or performing any household chores. Always store serpentine away from other gems and jewelry. If possible, wrap stones individually in a soft cloth and place them inside a fabric-lined jewelry box.






Seraphinite is believed to be the stone which is related to angels, due to its high energies and relationship with angels; hence, it is also known as the angel stone. The name of this stone was derived from “seraphim”, which is a Greek word. Seraphim belong to the celestial group with three pairs of wings. It is considered that Seraphinite helps in communicating with angels and those angels provide supports to the wearer.

This stone is believed to be the stone of spiritual enlightenment. The alternate names of this stone are Seraphim and Green Chlorite. A German geologist, Abraham Gottlob Werner has given “chlorite” name to this stone, and as it shows green hue, and then it was popular as a Green Chlorite. Chlorite was derived from the Greek word “colors”, which means green.

Green Chlorite or Seraphinite is one of the most important stones that have been found for connecting and contacting the higher powerful energies. Although, due to the hardness of Seraphinite, it is not considered as jewelry stone, so usually it is a collector’s stone.

Healing Properties

Seraphinite is said to be the stone of angel wings, because of its powerful spiritual energy. This stone helps in inviting the Kundalini, which helps in clearing and stimulating each and every chakra.

Some of the beneficial healing properties of Seraphinite are as follows:

  • Physical Healer

Physically, Seraphinite supports the activity of heart and lungs, which helps the wearer in improving any systemic sickness or cellular regeneration. This stone is believed to be a blood strengthener, which supports in cellular respiration and deliver some energetic nutrients to the cells. Reproduction of any kind of cancerous cells can be reduced with the powerful energies of Seraphinite crystals. Seraphinite crystals decrease the growth of all kind of cancerous cells so that they could never produce again in the wearer’s body.

Seraphinite is considered to be helpful in the process of detoxification and provide assistance to the wearer in strengthening the liver and kidneys. This wonderful stone is believed to stimulate the metabolism in the body of the wearer, and also helps in losing weight.

The spinal cord is considered to be activated with the high vibrations of Seraphinite and these vibrations also link with the heart and lungs of the wearer. Seraphinite is believed to release the muscle tension and alleviates severe pain.

  • Emotional Healer

Emotional patterns or tendencies which create exasperation to the wearer’s soul and spirit can be released with the assistance of Seraphinite crystals. These crystals provide assistance with its higher energies. Seraphinite is believed to bring the enlightenment or joyful energy into the wearer life, which allows him to generate a positive response to each and every bad situation. Moreover, this stone makes the person react to life in a balanced and harmonious way.

Seraphinite belongs to the clinochlore that encourage a person to grow emotionally, physically and spiritually. Likewise, seraphinite also assist the wearer in his overall growth. To be more compassionate and caring, Seraphinite stones would help in acquiring these traits.

This stone helps the wearer to enhance his relationship in a better way and to improve his social skills. These qualities would make the wearer be more confident with others. Whenever, any kind of conflict occurs into the wearer’s life, it tends to promote the reconciliation and positive promise between partners.

  • Spiritual Healer

As a spiritual healer, Seraphinite is believed to be an efficient tool that fills the wearer’s life with powerful light energy. The crystals of this stone bring light into the wearer’s body and make him understand the nature of physicality. This process leads to the glowing health of the wearer.

Seraphinite is considered as a high spiritual healer, which allows an individual to recognize those changes that may be required for harmony and completion in life. This stone act as a protective stone that safeguards the body, while spirit is away.

Stone of enlightenment – Seraphinite comprises powerful spiritual vibrations, which helps a person in self-healing. The presence of this seraphinite stone inspires the wearer to grow spiritually and it is considered the best crystal for meditation.

  • Heals and Balances Chakra

Seraphinite is believed to be an energizing or grounding stone, which can be used for all the chakras, but particularly it is believed to stimulate the Heart Chakra.

This magnificent stone provides balancing the ability to the wearer, which helps him to balance all the emotions of heart. The green colored crystals of this stone lead the person to deal with the flows of emotional relationships and accept the changes that take place into the wearer’s life.

Seraphinite also considered resolving the blockages and balances the Heart Chakra. It also inspires the wearer to accept and to give unconditional love.

Seraphinite Facts

Some facts about Seraphinite

  • The trade name of Seraphinite is clinochlore, which also belongs to the chlorite group of minerals.
  • Holding a piece of Seraphinite during the meditation process helps a person to contact the Goddess of wisdom and communicate with her.
  • Green crystals of Seraphinite are believed to honor the Goddess of Spring, which led to a new growth of the wearer.

Metaphysical Properties

Seraphinite belongs to the gem variety of Clinochlore, which is a blend of magnesium iron aluminum silicate. This stone is characterized by its deep green color shade, which is highlighted with shimmering patterns of silver, and these shimmering patterns reflect light, representing the changing views of angels.

The chemical composite of Seraphinite represents the metamorphic and hydrothermal alterations of iron and magnesium silicate minerals. Furthermore, during the process of crystallization, it forms granular and tabular masses of crystals.

At the point of its clarity and luster, Seraphinite varies in between translucent and opaque. The crystals of Seraphinite comprise monoclinic structure with pearly, vitreous, greasy and dull lustrous. According to the hardness on the Moh’s scale, Seraphinite measures in between 2 to 2.5, which is below than the average. Hence, Seraphinite is said to be the stone of collector, and not suitable for jewelry stone.

Seraphinite Color

This marvelous gemstone can be found in numerous colors including blackish green, bluish green, yellowish green or olive, yellow, red, brown, tan and white. Normally, Seraphinite shows deep forest green with feathery silver additions of mica mineral.

Seraphinite Colors