Category Oxide mineral
(repeating unit)
Silica (silicon dioxide, SiO2)
Crystal system Hexagonal/Trigonal
Formula mass 60 g / mol
Color Various
Cleavage no cleavage
Fracture Uneven, conchoidal
Mohs scalehardness 6.5–7
Luster Vitreous, silky
Streak White
Diaphaneity Translucent
Specific gravity 2.55–2.70
Optical properties Uniaxial/+
Refractive index 1.530 to 1.543
References [1][2]

Onyx is a banded variety of the oxide mineral chalcedonyAgate and onyx are both varieties of layered chalcedony that differ only in the form of the bands: agate has curved bands and onyx has parallel bands. The colors of its bands range from white to almost every color (save some shades, such as purple or blue). Commonly, specimens of onyx contain bands of black and/or white.[3]


Onyx comes through Latin (of the same spelling), from the Greek ὄνυξ, meaning “claw” or “fingernail”. With its fleshtone color, onyx can be said to resemble a fingernail. The English word “nail” is cognate with the Greek word.


Red onyx

"A photograph of 6 smooth black pebbles with white markings which are arranged in a circle"

Black onyx with bands of colors

Onyx is formed of bands of chalcedony in alternating colors. It is cryptocrystalline, consisting of fine intergrowths of the silica minerals quartz and moganite. Its bands are parallel to one another, as opposed to the more chaotic banding that often occurs in agates.

Sardonyx is a variant in which the colored bands are sard (shades of red) rather than black. Black onyx is perhaps the most famous variety, but is not as common as onyx with colored bands. Artificial treatments have been used since ancient times to produce both the black color in “black onyx” and the reds and yellows in sardonyx. Most “black onyx” on the market is artificially colored.

Imitations and treatments

The name has sometimes been used, incorrectly, to label other banded lapidary materials, such as banded calcite found in MexicoPakistan, and other places, and often carved, polished and sold. This material is much softer than true onyx, and much more readily available. The majority of carved items sold as “onyx” today are this carbonate material.

Artificial onyx types have also been produced from common chalcedony and plain agates. The first-century naturalist Pliny the Elder described these techniques being used in Roman times.Treatments for producing black and other colors include soaking or boiling chalcedony in sugar solutions, then treating with sulfuric or hydrochloric acid to carbonize sugars which had been absorbed into the top layers of the stone.These techniques are still used, as well as other dyeing treatments, and most so-called “black onyx” sold is artificially treated. In addition to dye treatments, heating and treatment with nitric acid have been used to lighten or eliminate undesirable colors.

Geographic occurrence

Onyx is a gemstone found in various regions of the world including Yemen, Uruguay, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Germany, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Madagascar, Latin America, the UK, and various states in the US.

Historic use

A photograph showing a roughly rectangular gem set in a gold frame with 2 carved panels with various figures carved in shallow from translucent white chalcedony against a solid black background

The Gemma Augustea is a Roman cameo produced 9–12 AD and carvedin a two-layered onyx gem (19 × 23 cm)

It has a long history of use for hardstone carving and jewelry, where it is usually cut as a cabochon or into beads. It has also been used for intaglio and hardstone cameo engraved gems, where the bands make the image contrast with the ground. Some onyx is natural but much of the material in commerce is produced by the staining of agate.

Onyx was used in Egypt as early as the Second Dynasty to make bowls and other pottery items. Use of sardonyx appears in the art of Minoan Crete, notably from the archaeological recoveries at Knossos.

Brazilian green onyx was often used as plinths for art deco sculptures created in the 1920s and 1930s. The German sculptor Ferdinand Preiss used Brazilian green onyx for the base on the majority of his chryselephantinesculptures. Green onyx was also used for trays and pin dishes – produced mainly in Austria – often with small bronze animals or figures attached.

Onyx is mentioned in the Bible many times. Sardonyx (onyx in which white layers alternate with sard) is mentioned in the Bible as well.

Onyx was known to the Ancient Greeks and Romans. The first-century naturalist Pliny the Elder described both type of onyx and various artificial treatment techniques in his Naturalis Historia.

Slabs of onyx (from the Atlas Mountains) were famously used by Mies van der Rohe in Villa Tugendhat at Brno (completed 1930) to create a shimmering semi-translucent interior wall.

The Hôtel de la Païva in Paris is noted for its yellow onyx décor, and the new Mariinsky Theatre Second Stage in St.Petersburg uses yellow onyx in the lobby.


The ancient Romans entered battle carrying amulets of sardonyx engraved with Mars, the god of war. This was believed to bestow courage in battle. In Renaissance Europe, wearing sardonyx was believed to bestow eloquence.A traditional Persian belief is that it helped with epilepsy.Sardonyx was traditionally used by English midwives to ease childbirth by laying it between the breasts of the mother.


Obsidian – Physical Properties & Healing Properties

Obsidian – Physical Properties & Healing Properties 

Chemistry: SiO2; Mostly silicon dioxide with large amounts of impurities.

Class: Mineraloids

Uses: As a semiprecious stone and ornamental stone for carvings.

  • Mahogany Obsidian
  • Apache Tear
  • Snowflake Obsidian
  • Polished Obsidian


Obsidian is the result of volcanic lava coming in contact with water. Often the lava pours into a lake or ocean and is cooled quickly. This process produces a glassy texture in the resulting rock. Iron and magnesium give the obsidian a dark green to black color.

Obsidian has several varieties. Obsidian can contain small bubbles of air that are aligned along layers created as the molten rock was flowing just before being cooled. These bubbles can produce interesting effects such as a golden sheen, known as Sheen Obsidian or a rainbow sheen called Rainbow Obsidian. Inclusions of small, white, radially clustered crystals of cristobalite in the black glass produce a blotchy or snowflake pattern producing Snowflake Obsidian. Small nuggets of obsidian that have been naturally rounded and smoothed by wind and water are called Apache Tears.
Often confused with smoky quartz, obsidian has similar properties to quartz because of a similar chemistry. However, many properties dependant on a crystal structure are altered or absent in obsidian because it lacks any crystal structure of its own. The piezoelectric and optical properties in quartz are thus absent in obsidian. Smoky quartz usually has a splotchy or zoned distribution to its color while Obsidian’s color is more uniformly distributed.

Obsidian is mineral-like, but not a true mineral because as a glass it is not crystalline; in addition, its composition is too complex to comprise a single mineral. It is sometimes classified as a mineraloid. Though obsidian is usually dark in color similar to mafic rocks such as basalt, obsidian’s composition is extremely felsic. Obsidian consists mainly of SiO2 (silicon dioxide), usually 70% or more.

Crystalline rocks with obsidian’s composition include granite and rhyolite. Because obsidian is metastable at the Earth’s surface (over time the glass becomes fine-grained mineral crystals), no obsidian has been found that is older than Cretaceous age. This breakdown of obsidian is accelerated by the presence of water. Obsidian has low water content when fresh, typically less than 1% water by weight, but becomes progressively hydrated when exposed to groundwater, forming perlite. Tektites were once thought by many to be obsidian produced by lunar volcanic eruptions, though few scientists now adhere to this hypothesis.


Pliny’s Natural History features volcanic glass called “Obsidianus”, so named from its resemblance to a stone found in Ethiopia by one Obsius.


Obsidian is not made of mineral crystals; therefore, it is not a true rock.

Obsidian has a long history as it has been dated back to the Stone Age, when it was used for tool making and as an ornamental stone.

Obsidian was valued in Stone Age cultures because, like flint, it could be fractured to produce sharp blades or arrowheads. Like all glass and some other types of naturally occurring rocks, obsidian breaks with a characteristic conchoidal fracture.

It was also polished to create early mirrors. Modern archaeologists have developed a relative dating system, obsidian hydration dating, to calculate the age of obsidian artifacts. In Ubaid in the 5th millennium BC, blades were manufactured from obsidian mined in today’s Turkey. Ancient Egyptians used obsidian imported from the eastern Mediterranean and southern Red Sea regions. Obsidian was also used in ritual circumcisions because of its deftness and sharpness.


Obsidian can be found in locations which have experienced rhyolitic eruptions. It can be found in Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Canada, Chile, Greece, El Salvador, Guatemala, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Scotland and the United States.

Obsidian flows which may be hiked on are found within the calderas of Newberry Volcano and Medicine Lake Volcano in the Cascade Range of western North America, and at Inyo Craters east of the Sierra Nevada in California. Yellowstone National Park has a mountainside containing obsidian located between Mammoth Hot Springs and the Norris Geyser Basin.

Deposits can be found in many other western U.S. states including Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, Utah, Washington, Oregon and Idaho. Obsidian can also be found in the eastern U.S. state of Virginia.


Obsidian has been used for blades in surgery, as well-crafted obsidian blades have a cutting edge many times sharper than high-quality steel surgical scalpels, the cutting edge of the blade being only about 3 nanometers thick. Even the sharpest metal knife has a jagged, irregular blade when viewed under a strong enough microscope; when examined even under an electron microscope an obsidian blade is still smooth and even. One study found that obsidian incisions produced narrower scars, fewer inflammatory cells, and less granulation tissue in a group of rats. Don Crabtree produced obsidian blades for surgery and other purposes, and has written articles on the subject.

Obsidian is also used for ornamental purposes and as a gemstone. It possesses the property of presenting a different appearance according to the manner in which it is cut: when cut in one direction it is jet black; in another it is glistening gray. “Apache tears” are small rounded obsidian nuggets embedded within a grayish-white perlite matrix.

Plinths for audio turntables have been made of obsidian since the 1970s; e.g. the greyish-black SH-10B3 plinth by Technics.


Obsidian is formed when volcanic lava comes into contact with water; this forces it to cool so quickly that it doesn?t have time to crystallize resulting in a stone with a shiny, glassy texture.

Black Obsidian is an extremely powerful and fast acting stone, and should be used with caution for Crystal Healing. It can bring negative emotions and unpleasant truths rushing to the surface, which have to be confronted before peace can return. Many people find Obsidian?s effects overwhelming and prefer to use a gentler stone. Black Obsidian is a very protective stone. It is said to form a shield against negativity and to absorb negative energies from the environment. Because of this it should be cleansed regularly in running water.

Place Black Obsidian on the Base Chakra for grounding. In healing Obsidian is believed to reduce the pain of arthritis, to help joint problems and to ease cramp. It is also said to aid digestion.


Color: dark green to dark brown and black, also can show sheens of gold or green, yellow, blue and/or purple coloration. Sometimes with white inclusions.

Luster: Vitreous

Transparency: Obsidian is translucent in any stone of appreciable size.

Crystal System: Does not apply because obsidian is amorphous.

Habits: Compact nodules or as massive layers between other volcanic rocks.

Fracture: Conchoidal

Hardness: 5 – 5.5

Specific Gravity: 2.6

Streak: White

Best Field Indicators: Color, fracture, flow bubbles, softness, association with other volcanic rocks and lack of crystal faces.



Mystic Quartz Gemstone Information

Mystic Quartz Gemstone Information

About Mystic Quartz – History and Introduction

Mystic quartz is quite a new gem type, first seen around 1998. It is natural colorless (white) quartz that has been coated, giving it a unique rainbow color effect. Therefore, it is not a gem type, but is an enhanced clear quartz. The coating technology, known as thin film deposition, was pioneered by a company called Azotic Coating Inc. Mystic quartz may be so-called because its attractive changing colors appear deep, mysterious and unusual. Mystic quartz usually appears to display rainbow colors, with greens, blues and purples being quite prominent. Since the treatment is a coating, it is not a permanent enhancement, but its remarkable appearance makes it an interesting gem in its own right.

Identifying Mystic Quartz

Mystic quartz can be identified by clear thin coating applied to colorless quartz which can result is an infinite combination of unique colors, often appearing similar to a kaleidoscopic. Pink mystic quartz is one of the more popular of varieties, as is the blue ‘tanzanite-like’ mystic variety. Like all quartz varieties, it has a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale.

Mystic Quartz; Origin and Gemstone Sources

The raw material for mystic quartz is white quartz, sometimes referred to as rock crystal, which is found all over the world. Some of the most important deposits are found in Brazil, Madagascar, the United States and the Alps. Many deposits have yields rock crystal specimens weighing several tons.

Buying Mystic Quartz and Mystic Quartz Gemstone Value

Mystic Quartz Color

As mentioned above, mystic quartz has a very interesting rainbow color, which changes as it is tilted. This is what sets it apart from other stones, since every single color can be seen in one kaleidoscopic and magical stone. The quality of mystic quartz gemstones is dependent on the quality of the raw material; in this case a clear quartz gem. Therefore, quartz gems with high clarity and luster will yield the best results.

Mystic Quartz Clarity and Luster

Only the highest quality, transparent, eye-clean quartz is used to produce mystic quartz gemstones. Mystic quartz exhibits an attractive vitreous (glassy) luster after it has been cut and polished.

Mystic Quartz Cut and Shape

Quartz is a very versatile material. Therefore it can be fashioned into a great variety of shapes, such as square, round, octagon, pear, oval, heart and other fancy shapes. Strongly colored gemstones are usually scissor cut whereas weakly colored stones are generally brilliantly cut. This best shows off the brilliance and clarity of the gems. Since mystic quartz is strongly colored, the clear quartz can be brilliantly cut in preparation for the color enhancement. Mystic quartz should not be re-cut, since this would remove the coating and expose the colorless quartz beneath. Many mystic quartz gems are given interesting cuts, such as concave cuts and diamond-cuts.

Mystic Quartz Treatment

Colorless quartz, the raw material, is always untreated. In order to convert eye clean colorless quartz of fine quality into mystic quartz, a process known as thin film deposition is used. The cut and polished quartz is coated with an extremely thin titanium film that bonds with quartz at the molecular level. This is not a permanent treatment, since it only affects the surface of the stone.

Mystic Quartz Gemological Properties:

Chemical Formula: SiO2, Silicon dioxide
Crystal Structure: (Trigonal), hexagonal prisms
Color: Colorless
Hardness: 7 on the Mohs scale
Refractive Index: 1.544 – 1.553
Density: 2.65
Cleavage: None
Transparency: Transparent
Double Refraction or Birefringence: +0.009
Luster: Vitreous
Fluorescence: None

Please refer to our Gemstone Glossary for details of gemmology-related terms.

Mystic Topaz Gemstone
Mystic Topaz

Mystic quartz is similar to mystic topaz, which is colorless topaz that is coated in the same way. Mystic quartz is also similar to Azotic quartz and Azotic topaz. “Azotic” is a trade name for a patented process whereby the gemstone is coated to produce rainbow colors. Azotic gemstones usually display more pinkish-yellow tones than mystic gemstones.

Mystic Quartz Mythology, Metaphysical and Alternative Crystal Healing Power

Mystic quartz is natural quartz that has been coated to enhance it, therefore, the beliefs that are attributed to natural quartz also apply to it. colorless quartz is said to heighten the feelings or energy of its wearer. It is also thought to be an uplifting crystal that helps to dispel negativity and provides protection against harmful atmospheres. colorless quartz is also attributed with the ability to clear the mind and facilitate concentration. Physically, quartz is claimed to be stabilizing and balancing. In traditional Hindu belief systems, quartz is associated with balancing the crown chakra, which assists with higher consciousness.

Disclaimer: Metaphysical and Alternative Crystal Healing Powers and Properties are not to be taken as confirmed advice. Traditional, Ceremonial and Mythological Gemstone Lore is collected from various resources and does not represent the sole opinion of SETT Co., Ltd. This information is not to replace the advice of your doctor. Should you have any medical conditions, please see a licensed medical practitioner. GemSelect does not guarantee any claims or statements of healing or astrological birthstone powers and cannot be held liable under any circumstances.

Mystic Quartz Gemstone Jewelry Design Ideas

Mystic quartz can be made into an almost limitless variety of jewelry due to its versatility. It is suitable for both rustic style, simply set or wire-wrapped bullet jewelry, or finely cut and faceted modern jewelry. Mystic quartz can be fashioned into rings, earrings, bracelets and pendants of almost any shape. Mystic quartz is quite hard (7 on the Mohs scale), which gives it durability. However, it should not be re-cut, since this could remove the coating.

Note: Buy colored gemstones by size and not by carat weight. Colored stones vary in size-to-weight ratio. Some stones are larger and others are smaller than diamonds by weight in comparison.

Mystic Quartz Gemstone Jewelry Care and Cleaning

How to clean your gemstonesAlthough quartz is considered to be relatively hard (7 on the Mohs scale), mystic quartz requires some care. Only mild detergent should be used for cleaning, combined with a gentle scrubbing with a toothbrush at the most. In order to avoid water stains on the coating, the crystal should be dried with a towel or soft cloth.

To clean your quartz gemstones, simply use warm soapy water and a soft cloth. Be sure to rinse well to remove soapy residue. As with most gemstones, ultrasonic cleaners and steamers are not recommended. Always remove any jewelry or gemstones before cleaning or engaging in harsh physical activities such as sport. Store quartz gemstones away from other gemstones to avoid scratches. It is best to wrap gemstones in soft cloth or place them inside a fabric-lined jewelry box.






A very beautiful peachy-pink variant of Beryl, Morganite is an amazing ladylike stone holding innocence, compassion, love and promise. This is the crystal of pure and divine love attuning heart and heart chakras.

Morganite is a stone that is often called as Pink Emerald because Morganite and Emerald both are the varieties of Beryl, and Morganite has excellent metaphysical properties that are almost equivalent to Emerald.

This gemstone also draws the attention of plenty of love into the wearer’s life and helps out in preserving this love as it grows and flourishes gradually. It encourages caring and warm actions and thoughts and enhances the sense of responsibility and consideration. Being the crystal for the heart, in particular, it is well-thought-out to be used as a magnet that attracts one’s soul mate, and in deepening the ongoing love. It instigates admiration, adoration, and joy in the life of one who wears it with the whole heart. Not only worldly, Morganite increases the opportunities of a person that allows him to experience the unconditional love of the divine as well.

Healing Properties

The benefits that Morganite bestows to its wearers are:

  • Physical Healer

Morganite helps a person in physically strengthening the heart, the energy field, and assists in establishing a place of governance in the aura. It treats heart-related problems, like palpitation, as well as treats nervous system, clears lungs, and relieves stress. This mineral is equally excellent in treating ailments, like tuberculosis, asthma, emphysema, reorganizing disordered cell, thyroid, tongue infection, vertigo, impotence, laryngitis, etc.

  • Emotional Healer

Morganite helps in overcoming apprehension, anger and resentment, and in being familiar with the discontented emotional feelings and needs, which have due to some or the other reason went unexpressed. It soothes the emotional field and activates the energy that induces thoughts and actions. Morganite brings wisdom and calmness in mind and attaches to old relationships again that ended badly due to arguments and fights.

  • Spiritual Healer

Morganite is extremely valuable for enlightening the spirit in the wearer, and consenting to one’s behaviour and qualities to wilfully aligning with unearthly souls. The crystal energy of Morganite reminds us that we are all the part of the universe and are accustomed to the enormous love of the heavenly bodies.

  • Heals and Balances Chakra

The beautiful peach and pink Morganite reflects true love and emotions. It stimulates the heart chakra, in particular, which is helpful in regulating our interaction with the outside world. The heart chakra balances the abilities of the wearer to be what he is in the environment. It brings harmony to relationships.

Morganite Facts

Some facts about Morganite

The largest to date Morganite found is the 598.70 carat gem from Madagascar, which is now kept in the collection of now British Museum.

Morganite is Yang in nature and utilises fire energy. It brings warmth, zeal, brightness, and enlightenment wherever it is kept.

It is believed to be the stone of people born under zodiac sign, Taurus.

The world’s primary source of Morganite is Brazil, which sometimes yield crystals, which weigh more than 50 pounds.

Morganite is known to be the stone of researchers and students.

Metaphysical Properties

Morganite is a peachy-pink variant of the beryl mineral called as beryllium aluminium silicate. The beautiful colour that it has is because of the presence of caesium or manganese in it. It usually forms in masses and prismatic crystals.Unlike Emerald, Morganite is free of any kind of inclusions, and the large rough deposits of Morganite are rare in nature.

This stone was found in California and is named after its collector and famous American industrialist J.P. Morgan. This stone is also known as cesian beryl, pink beryl or rose beryl. The hardness of Morganite on Moh’s scale is 7.5 to 8, which determines its good hardness.

Morganite Color

By nature and characteristics, morganite is pale or pastel in colour having colours, like peach, soft pink, pink, pale-salmon, violet-pink, etc. In some of the cases, one can also find a cat’s eye effect or star effect in these stones to emphasize their features.

Morganite Colors


Moonstone Meaning

Moonstone Meaning

Facts, History and Lore

 Moonstone has captivated the hearts of jewelry lovers for centuries. The stone’s seemingly bland appearance is made spectacular with the presence of light and movement. The glowing sheen and soft color are enough to lure the onlooker, causing them to stare at the gemstone for extended periods of time in amazement.

We’re here to explore some common and not so common moonstone facts and uncover some unique history and meaning. Each of these facts will help you become a more educatedMORE

  • 01of 10

    Moonstone is a Variety of Feldspar

    Moonstone Detail: Learn About Moonstone Facts and the Meaning of Moonstone

    Edward Peters/Flickr/Creative Commons

    Moonstone is a mineral of the orthoclase feldspar group and is composed of potassium aluminum silicate.

    Moonstone can be identified from other similar stones by the presence of adularescence. Though the stone has optical qualities similar to some labradorite stones, labradorite is a plagioclase feldspar whereas moonstone is orthoclase feldspar.

    The main difference is that plagioclase feldspar is composed of calcium and sodium and orthoclase feldspar is composed of potassium.

  • 02of 10

    Moonstone Exhibits the Optical Phenomenon Known as Adularescence

    Moonstone gemstones

    101 Productions Ltd / Getty Images

    Adularescence is the optical phenomenon that causes the extraordinary glow on the surface of moonstone. The light moves across the stone much like moonlight would glide across a large body of calm water.

    This light show happens when light reflects off of thin layers of different feldspar minerals within moonstone. The layers act as a diffuser, softening the light and allowing it to bounce around the stone.

  • 03of 10

    Moonstone is Soft and Can Break

    Moonstone Meaning and Facts: Moonstone Can Make an Engagement Ring Alternative

     Anna Sheffield Moonstone Engagement Ring. Chris Hamby/Flickr/Creative Commons

    Even though moonstone ranks 6 – 6.5 on the Mohs Scale of Hardness, it can be prone to breaking due to the cleavage within the stone. Cleavage describes  the tendency for a stone to break along its planes or layers.

    Moonstone jewelry usually takes the form of earrings and necklaces since they’re less likely to receive hard blows. However, since moonstone has been becoming more popular, some designers are creating moonstone engagement rings.

    If you opt for a moonstone engagement ring or ringMORE

  • 04of 10

    Moonstone History and Lore

    Moonstone Lore and History

    Amelia Prayoga/Flickr/Creative Commons

    Ancient cultures coveted moonstone and created origins for the stone as spectacular as the stone itself. Many believed the stone was created from moon beams.

    Others strongly associated the stone’s powers with the moon. The stone was especially prized during a full moon. Hold a moonstone in your mouth during a full moon and the future would present itself to you.

    Moonstone is thought to bring its wearer good fortune and feelings of love and affection.

  • 05of 10

    Moonstone is a Jewelry Designer’s Dream

    Moonstone Meaning


     Moonstone found its way into jewelry throughout history, but it wasn’t until the early 1900’s that the stone became an iconic and important focal point. In the years preceding the Art Nouveau Era, moonstone was often used as a small accent stone. Some man in the moon pieces existed, but these were rare and less common.

    Artisans like René Lalique brought on a powerful change with the Art Nouveau and Arts and Crafts Movement. Natural, mystical stones with unique properties were favoredMORE

  • 06of 10

    Moonstone Can Be Confused With Opalite

    'Opalite' a Glass Healing Stone, Not to Be Confused With Moonstone

     Opalite Glass. Ron Evans / Getty Images

    Opalite is a man-made glass that is made to look like opal and moonstone. This is a simulated stone that is not a natural gemstone.  Some sellers will try to deceive with fancy names like Opalite Moonstone, Sea Quartz or Opalite Quartz. The stone is even referred to as Opalite Crystal, which it’s not even a crystal.

    What’s even more confusing is that opalite is cut in a very similar way as moonstone. You will find it in cabochon shapes as well as carved into figures like moons.

  • 07of 10

    Moonstone Metaphysical Properties

    Moonstone Healing Properties

    lapoli/Flickr/Creative Commons

    Moonstone is a healing stone that has been connected with water Zodiac signs. Some of the healing properties associated with this stone include:

    • Enhances intuition
    • Makes wearer more accepting of change
    • Alleviates fear associated with change
    • Balances emotions
    • Promotes a calm mood
    • Encourages peace, harmony and balance
    • Improves confidence
    • Helps a person become more passionate
  • 08of 10

    Moonstone Can Be Faceted

    Cushion brilliant-cut Moonstone (Orthoclase)

    Harry Taylor / Getty Images

     Most moonstone is cut into cabochon shapes. Domed cabochons  highlight the stone’s adularescence and opaqueness.

    In recent years, more designers are experimenting with faceted shapes, yielding good results from more transparent varieties of the stone.

  • 09of 10

    Moonstone Can Be Carved into Fanciful Shapes

    Carved Moonstone Shapes

    Jessa and Mark Anderson/Flickr/Creative Commons

     Since moonstone is a softer opaque stone, it can be carved into unique shapes. One of the most common shapes is the man in the moon face. This face has been incorporated into jewelry since ancient times.

    Carving a moonstone takes skill and expertise as to not chip the stone along one of the planes. Since moonstone is prone to chipping, gem cutters need to be careful with how intricate and fragile their designs become. You’ll notice that the girdle of a moonstone is never thinned out into aMORE

  • 10of 10

    Rainbow Moonstone is Actually Labradorite

    Polished moonstone (chandrakanthi stone), a type of opaque feldspar unique to Sri Lanka, Mitiyagoda village, Sri Lanka

    Kim Walker / Getty Images

    Despite its close relation, rainbow moonstone is actually a transparent version of labradorite. Both moonstone and rainbow moonstone exhibit adularescence, though rainbow moonstone has blue or rainbow tones on a transparent stone. Regular moonstone has soft white or grey undert





Moldavite will mesmerise the onlooker in just one glimpse of it. This beautiful green talisman is the epitome of greatness, ethical values, and destiny. Moldavite takes it shape from the violent meteoric impact of it with the mother earth; hence we can say that this amazing piece of stone is star-born.

Moldavite is a form of glass that naturally occurs, and it was found in Czechoslovakia in 1787 along the river Moldau. One can say that among another variety of gems these are also ones, which are claimed to be of extraterrestrial origin. They are actually believed to be the outer surface of the meteorites that melts and fuses while entering into the environment.

Moldavite is quite different in their pattern also. They are generally torpedo-shaped or elongated, and they have a diagnostic pattern having bubble and fern-like structure.

Moldavite is also known as the ‘Vltavin’ or ‘Bouteille Stone’ in Czech. This highly valued stone is extensively effective in its metaphysical practices as well.

Healing Properties

This amazing stone from the stars is beneficial in following ways:

  • Physical Healer

Moldavite is priceless as an instrument that assists in diagnosing, and finding out the cause of any imbalance or disease in the wearer’s body. The vibrational energy that Moldavite holds reinstates the clogged areas and heartens the cells to return to their original state of perfection.

Moldavite is an invigorating stone that slows down the ageing process and stimulates the overall fulfilment of the wearer. It aids diseases that are related to the brain such as mental degeneration, memory retention, balancing disturbed electrical urge of the brain and the progressive illness.

Moldavite is an outstanding stimulant for treating gout, and like many other green gemstones, it is also good for the eyes. It is beneficial in the treatment of asthma, allergies, respiratory troubles, rashes, influenza, and anaemia.

  • Emotional Healer

Moldavite is a stone of the heart, which reaches the deepest inner self of the human being. It helps the wearer in being down to earth with recognition, integrity, and honour. It brings the heart and mind in a union, allowing them to work with coordination and affiliation.

Moldavite is an eccentric and unconventional stone, which stimulates astonishing solutions and arouse hidden memories. It is said that those who do not like the deep green color of Moldavite need to first experience the love that makes them whole, and they must have an emotional side.

Moldavite is a mascot sent to the Earth for spiritual enlightenment, renovation and evolutionary development of the mankind. It helps in smoothing down the progress of clear, strong, and direct connection between one’s realizations with that of the universal sources. Because of being the body of alienated origination, Moldavite is believed to have the energy and ability to form a connection between cosmic messengers and ascended masters.

Resonating with this spiritual stone also creates in the wearer a sense of devout protection. It averts pessimistic energies and bodies from linking with or adhering to one’s aura.

  • Spiritual Healer

Moldavite is a mascot sent to the Earth for spiritual enlightenment, renovation and evolutionary development of the mankind. It helps in smoothing down the progress of clear, strong, and direct connection between one’s realizations with that of the universal sources. Because of being the body of alienated origination, Moldavite is believed to have the energy and ability to form a connection between cosmic messengers and ascended masters.

Resonating with this spiritual stone also creates in the wearer a sense of devout protection. It averts pessimistic energies and bodies from linking with or adhering to one’s aura.

  • Heals and Balances Chakra 

Being the stone of the heart, Moldavite first and foremost is beneficial in healing the heart chakra. It encourages the wearer to be more open to the outer world and balances his ability to face the external environment. It is important to maintain the balance of heart chakra to reduce the feeling of unknown fear and hesitation.

Other than treating the heart chakra, Moldavites are also believed to heal the third eye and the crown chakras. The third eye chakra helps the person in keeping up with the pace of the outside world by enhanced awareness and knowledge. The third eye chakra opens the person to new ventures, ideas, thoughts, and vision.

The Crown Chakra is positioned at the top of the head and is considered to be the entryway to the long-drawn-out universe ahead of our physical and mental bodies. It manages the way we think, and we react to the humankind around us. It is the origin of our values and the basis of our mysticism and religion. When the Crown chakra is in balance, the energies of our whole body are in balance.

Moldavite Facts

Some facts about Moldavite

  • In Czechoslovakian legends, Moldavite was supposed to bring good fortune and accord in marital relationships.
  • Moldavite, since the last century, has also got acclaimed because of its connection with the Holy Grail. Holy Grail is the vessel which caught the blood of Christ when he was crucified.
  • Moldavite is not a natural birthstone.
  • Moldavite is pretty expensive s its deposits are very less. It is found only in Czechoslovakia.

Metaphysical Properties

Moldavite is a variant of Tektite, which is a family of naturally forming glass rocks.  This gemstone garnered an unusual attention and popularity due to its connection with the heavenly bodies.

Moldavite was once considered as the artificial stone and the variety of Obsidian. The unique patterns and shapes of this stone witness it origination from the molten rocks. Most commonly, one can find shapes, like oval, drop-like, rod-like, plate or disc shaped, spheroid, dumbbell, elliptical, and spiral. The splash pattern of liquid is a common sight in all the shapes.

Moldavite is found most often in tints of deep leafy green, although some are pale green or bottle green, olive, and even greenish-brown. On Moh’s scale the hardness of the stone measures around 5.5 to 6.6. It contains silicon dioxide and aluminium oxide. Moldavite displays a vitreous sheen when cut and polished; however its surface is rough and scarred.

Moldavite has derived its name from the Moldau River in Czechoslovakia, which is its place of origination.

Moldavite Color

The moldavites are usually olive-green in color and clear as a crystal. The deposits in other strewn field near Brno contain darker and leafy green shades, with the tints of brown, of Moldavite.

Moldavite Colors


Fire Opal Facts

Fire Opal Facts

Fire OpalWhat is a Fire Opal?

Many people are surprised to know this vibrant orange gemstone is a unique part of the lush world of Opals. Due to their striking, saturated color and faceted cut they don’t resemble the traditional idea of an opal.

What makes it an “Opal”?

This is typically the first question that customers ask when they see this gemstone. In actuality opals come in many colors, including colorless, white, yellow, red, orange, green, brown, black, and blue. Like traditional opals, fire opals are mined near volcanoes and contain relatively high water content of about 3 to 10% (sometimes even up to 20%). This is why opals are considered a delicate gemstone that should be worn with care.

fire opal2Color

Unlike other opals that flash many hues of blue, green and even red, fire opal is NOT known for its play of color. The appeal of fire opal comes from the vividness of its color. Fire opals can range from yellow to light red and can even have brownish undertones. This is caused by fine traces of iron oxide. They are either faceted or cut as a cabochon because it is the shape that best suits its unique color.


Mexico has the most significant fire opal deposits in the world. But this beautiful gemstone can also be found in Honduras, Guatemala, The U.S., Canada, Australia, Ethiopia, and Turkey.


It is thought that fire opals bestow courage, stamina, will power and energy to those that wear it. It is also thought that the fiery orange/red gemstone conveys the feeling of warmth, peace, and harmony.


The Aztec Indians of Mexico were among some of the first people to discover the fire opal.  The Mayas and Aztecs used fire opal in jewelry and for mosaics and religious cults. They called it “Quetzalitzlipyollitli” which means “Stone of the Bird of Paradise”.


Hardness: 6-6.5
Crystal Structure: Amorphous





Chondrit Meteorite – http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chondrite_H5.JPG

What Is A Meteorite?

Earth is bombarded with millions of tons of space material each day. Most of the objects vaporize in our atmosphere, but some of the larger pieces (from pebbles to boulder-sized rocks) actually fall to the ground. Most of the objects come from asteroids, which are objects made of various types of rock and have existed since the origin of the solar system.  A small rocky or metallic chunk of material that travels through space is called a meteoroid. Very small meteoroids (the size of dust) are often referred to as micrometeoroids or space dust. These fragments may also be leftover comet debris, or were ejected in collisions between other solar system bodies such as the Moon or Mars.

As a meteoroid travels through our atmosphere, it is heated by friction. That causes it to glow, and if this happens at night, we see a long streak of light known as a meteor.

If the object survives the trip and falls to Earth’s surface, it is known as a meteorite. Many of these fall into the ocean (since about 71% of Earth’s surface is covered by water). The rest fall on land, where they await discovery by meteorite hunters.

Facts About Meteorites

  • Millions of meteoroids travel through Earth’s atmosphere each day.
  • When a meteor encounters our atmosphere and is vaporized, it leaves behind a trail. That “burning” meteoroid is called a meteor.
  • The appearance of a number of meteors occurring in the same part of the sky over a period of time is called “meteor shower”.
  • Many meteor showers are associated with comets, which leave behind debris as they orbit through the solar system.  Showers occur when Earth’s orbit crosses the path of a comet’s orbit.
  • Most meteorites are one of three types: stony, stony-iron, or iron. These compositions tell us where the meteoroid existed in its parent body.  An iron or stony iron was close to the core of an asteroid, while a stony object was closer to the surface.

Types Of Meteorites

Meteorites are fragments of asteroids that fall to ground on Earth. Scientists classify these objects according to their chemical makeup (what chemicals exist in them), their isotopic compositions (the types of each chemical element they contain), and their mineralogy (the minerals they contain).

Beyond those classifications, meteorites are also sorted as stony (made of rocky material), metallic (whether they contain iron), and mixtures (stony-irons).  Those three classes can be divided even further. For example, pallasite meteorites are a class of stony-iron meteorites that are made mostly of nickel and iron, but also contain olivine crystals (a commonly found crystal on Earth).

Famous Meteorites

Over the course of Earth’s history, many meteorites (large and small) have fallen to our planet’s surface. The most famous are the Allende, the Fukang, Hoba, and the Willamette Meteorite.

The Allende Meteorite fell to Earth in a fireball on February 8, 1969.  It was originally about the size of a car, and pieces were strewn across the Mexican state of Chihuahua. It has become one of the most-studied meteorites of all time, and is an excellent example of a carbonaceous chondrite. These types of meteorites date back to the formation of the Sun and Planets, and are among the most primitive solar system materials around. They are made mostly of silicates, oxides, sulfides, water, organic compounds and various minerals.

The Fukang Meteorite is one of the best examples of a pallasite, a type of stony-iron meteorite. Because of its large gem-like olivine crystals, pieces of this meteorite are much in demand by collectors.

The Hoba Meteorite was found in Namibia (in Africa). It is a very large, 60-tone rock, which makes it nearly impossible to move. It has been declared a National Monument in Namibia, and is one of the rare meteorites that is also part of a tourist site. Meteorite experts think Hoban fell about 80,000 years ago.  It is mostly iron, with some nickel and traces of other elements.

The Willamette Meteorite weighs 15.5 tons and is the largest ever found in the United States.

Meteorite Facts

Interesting Facts About Malachite

Interesting Facts About Malachite

Malachite Chemical Properties

Malachite is a popular stone which has dark and light green banded areas, and this patterns give the stone its unique ornamental look unlike that of any other gemstone. Malachite is a carbonate mineral normaly known as “copper carbonate” with the formula CuCO3.Cu(OH)2. It ranges between 3.5 – 4 on the Mohs scale of hardness. Its specific gravity is 3.74 – 3.95 (average 3.80), the refractive index range is 1.65 – 1.90. Although malachite is sensitive and not very hard, if handled with care it can be very durable. This vivid green gem gets its color from the copper content in its chemical formula. Crystals of malachite are rare, they belong to the monoclinic system of symmetry. They forms commonly in kidney-shaped (botroydal) or radiating masses.

Malachite Stone

Malachite Stone
Malachite Stone

History of Malachite

The Egyptians have been using malachite for amulets and other jewelry since 3000 AD. Often found in massive or botryoidal form, this beautiful green crystal has been used since ancient times in inlay work and in carvings of churches and cathedrals as it is found in huge boulders. It was also used as a pigment for paint during the 15th century in Egyptian tomb paintings and much later in European art. The Victorians were also great admirers of opaque jewelry stones, and malachite was chosen to be one of their favorites, sometimes choosing it to set in gold.

Malachite derives its name from the Greek word ‘mallow’, which means a green herb. The stone is also known by its trade name the peacock stone. Malachite can be found in USSR, Zaire, Germany,   France, Australia, Chile, Arizona and New Mexico/USA. Although malachite is widely distributed but they seldom occur in large quantities. Since malachite mineral is in abundant supply, you will hardly find synthetic materials in the market. There is evidence that Malachite was mined as early as 4000 B C on the Sinai Peninsula.

Malachite Uses and Treatments

Malachite is soft and somewhat brittle, it is sensitive to both acids and heat and requires gentle care, no ultrasonic or steam cleaning should be done. Use in bracelets, rings or other jewelry that gets rough or/and constant wear is not advisable. Use in brooches, earrings, pendants, tie pins is fine. Lower quality malachite may be stabilized with plastic resins or given a wax polishing on its surface. Due to its softness, malachite is easy to carve and shape, but unlike many other soft minerals, it generally takes a good polish.

Malachite is cut into cabochons or beads when fashioned into jewellery, as it is unsuitable for faceting. This mineral is not only used for ornamental stuffs or a gemstone, but it is also used in ground form as a cosmetic (eye shadow). The results may have been beautiful, but unfortunately they were also hazardous to your health as the coper content of the dust released from this stone makes it toxic to breathe. It is also used for carving statues, emblems, specimens, showpieces etc.

Malachite Magical and Healing Properties

In metaphysical terms malachite is considered a stone of balance and transformation, assisting in ones spiritual journey. Malachite stimulates ones insight and intuition whilst helping in recognizing and clearing past negative experiences and influences. Early civilisations wore amulets of malachite to ward off danger and illness. It is worn to detect impending danger, and assumed to break into pieces when danger is near. It is also believed to help unlock the meaning of dreams. Malachite promotes inner peace, prosperity, harmony, love and hope. It provides protection, security and success in business. It is the guardian stone of travelers. It works for improvement of mind and heart. It is also used during pregnancy to protect the mother and child from ill health.


10 Facts about Magnetite

10 Facts about Magnetite

Find the details about a mineral on Facts about Magnetite. Fe3O4 is the chemical formula of magnetite. You can turn magnetite into a permanent magnet if it has been magnetized before.   A magnet may attract magnetite due to its ferromagnetic characteristic. Lodestone is the naturally magnetized pieces of magnetite. The property of magnetism was discovered by the ancient people for the first time due to iron attractions toward lodestone. Let us check other important facts about magnetite below:

Facts about Magnetite 1: the rocks

The rocks, which contain small grains of magnetite, are the metamorphic and igneous rocks.

Facts about Magnetite 2: the hardness

The hardness of magnetite is around to 5 to 6 according to a Mohs scale.

Facts about Magnetite

Facts about Magnetite

Facts about Magnetite 3: the color

Magnetite has the black streak and metallic luster. The color is ranging from brownish-black to black.

Facts about Magnetite 4: the presence of magnetite

The presence of magnetite is spotted in both sedimentary rocks and ingenious rocks. There is no need to wonder that magnetofossils, dentrital grains, and sediments in the marine water and lake contain magnetite.


Facts about Magnetite 5: understanding magnetite

If you want to know more about the formation of rocks, you need to understand magnetite. Hematite is produced through the reaction between oxygen and magnetite. A buffer then will be formed by the mineral pair. The oxidation of magma can be calculated by understanding the compositions of mineral pairs.

Magnetite Facts

Magnetite Facts

Facts about Magnetite 6: magnetic compass

The first form of magnetic compass was created from lodestone. In paleomagnetism, magnetite obtains an important status for its magnetic characteristic.


Facts about Magnetite 7: the magnetic field of earth

The magnetic field of earth has been studied by the scientists over the course of history. One way to study it is by relating magnetite with other minerals like ulvospinel, hematite and ilmenite.

Facts about Magnetite 8: where to find magnetite

The beach sand often contains a large amount of magnetite.  The iron sands and mineral sands, which contain magnetite, can be found in West coast of North Island in New Zealand, California US and Lung Kwu Tan in Hong Kong.

Magnetite Pictures

Magnetite Pictures

Facts about Magnetite 9: the deposits

Atacama region of Chile, Adirondack region of New York, and Valentines region of Uruguay contain the high amount of magnetite deposits.

Facts about Magnetite 10: the uses of magnetite

In 1930s, the magnetic acetate tape was used in the audio recording process.

10 Facts about Magnetite