blackberry

The blackberry is an edible fruit produced by many species in the genus Rubus in the family Rosaceae, hybrids among these species within the subgenus Rubus, and hybrids between the subgenera Rubus and Idaeobatus. The taxonomy of the blackberries has historically been confused because of hybridization and apomixis, so that species have often been grouped together and called species aggregates. For example, the entire subgenus Rubus has been called the Rubus fruticosus aggregate, although the species R. fruticosus is considered a synonym of R. plicatus.[1]

Cultivated blackberries are notable for their significant contents of dietary fibervitamin C, and vitamin K (table).[10] A 100 gram serving of raw blackberries supplies 43 calories and 5 grams of dietary fiber or 25% of the recommended Daily Value (DV) (table).[10] In 100 grams, vitamin C and vitamin K contents are 25% and 19% DV, respectively, while other essential nutrients are low in content (table).

Blackberries contain both soluble and insoluble fiber components.

A bee, Bombus hypnorum, pollinating blackberries

Blackberry leaves are food for certain caterpillars; some grazing mammals, especially deer, are also very fond of the leaves. Caterpillars of the concealer moth Alabonia geoffrella have been found feeding inside dead blackberry shoots. When mature, the berries are eaten and their seeds dispersed by several mammals, such as the red fox and the Eurasian badger, as well as by small birds.[8]

A basket of wild blackberries

Blackberries grow wild throughout most of Europe. They are an important element in the ecology of many countries, and harvesting the berries is a popular pastime. However, the plants are also considered a weed, sending down roots from branches that touch the ground, and sending up suckersfrom the roots. In some parts of the world without native blackberries, such as in AustraliaChileNew Zealand, and the Pacific Northwest of North America, some blackberry species, particularly Rubus armeniacus (Himalayan blackberry) and Rubus laciniatus (evergreen blackberry), are naturalisedand considered an invasive species and a serious weed.[4]

Blackberry fruits are red before they are ripe, leading to an old expression that “blackberries are red when they’re green”.[9]

In various parts of the United States, wild blackberries are sometimes called “black-caps”, a term more commonly used for black raspberries, Rubus occidentalis.

As there is evidence from the Iron Age Haraldskær Woman that she consumed blackberries some 2,500 years ago, it is reasonable to conclude that blackberries have been eaten by humans over thousands of years.

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flue shot

Are flu vaccines safe?

Flu vaccines have good safety record. Hundreds of millions of Americans have safely received flu vaccines over the past 50 years, and there has been extensive research supporting the safety of flu vaccines.

A flu vaccine is the first and best way to reduce your chances of getting the flu and spreading it to others. CDC recommends that everyone 6 months of age and older receive a flu vaccine every year.

Can I get the flu from the flu vaccine?

No, the flu vaccine cannot cause flu. The vaccines either contain inactivated virus, meaning the viruses are no longer infectious, or a particle designed to look like a flu virus to your immune system. While the nasal spray flu vaccine does contain a live virus, the viruses are changed so that they cannot give you the flu.

Do flu vaccines cause any side effects?

Like any medical product, vaccines can cause side effects. Side effects of the flu vaccine are generally mild and go away on their own within a few days.

Common side effects from the flu shot include:

  • Soreness, redness, and/or swelling from the shot
  • Headache
  • Fever
  • Nausea
  • Muscle aches

The flu shot, like other injections, can occasionally cause fainting.

Some studies have found a possible small association of injectable flu vaccine with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Overall, these studies estimated the risk for GBS after vaccination as fewer than 1 or 2 cases of GBS per one million people vaccinated. Other studies have not found any association. GBS also, rarely, occurs after flu illness. Even though GBS following flu illness is rare, GBS is more common following flu illness than following flu vaccination. GBS has not been associated with the nasal spray vaccine.

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Are there signs or symptoms that should cause concern after getting a flu vaccine?

With any vaccine, look for any unusual conditions, such as a high fever, behavior changes, or signs of a severe allergic reaction after vaccination.

Signs of a severe allergic reaction can include:

  • Difficulty breathing
  • Hoarseness or wheezing
  • Swelling around the eyes or lips
  • Hives
  • Paleness
  • Weakness
  • A fast heart beat or dizziness

Life threatening allergic reactions to the flu shot are rare. These signs would most likely happen within a few minutes to a few hours after the vaccine is given.

What should I do if I think I am having a severe reaction to a flu vaccine?

If you think it is a severe allergic reaction or other emergency that can’t wait, call 9-1-1 and get to the nearest hospital. Otherwise, call your doctor.

Afterward, the reaction should be reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). Your doctor might file this report, or you can do it yourself through the VAERS website, or by calling 1-800-822-7967.

What should I do if I think I have been injured by the flu vaccine?

If you believe you have been injured by a flu vaccine you may be eligible to receive compensation from the federal government for your injuries if certain criteria are met. To learn more visit the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program website or call 1-800-338-2382.

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Are there some people who should not receive a flu vaccine?

CDC recommends everyone 6 months of age and older should receive an annual flu vaccination with rare exceptions. Individuals who can’t get the flu shot include:

  • Children younger than 6 months, since they are too young to get a flu shot.
  • Individuals with severe, life-threatening allergies to flu vaccine or any ingredient(s) in the vaccine.

Individuals should talk with their doctor before getting the flu shot if they:

There are multiple flu vaccines available, and not all flu vaccines can be given to people of all ages. Talk to your doctor if you have any questions regarding which flu vaccine options are best for you and your family. See Vaccination: Who Should Do It, Who Should Not and Who Should Take Precautions) for more information.

Should pregnant women receive a flu vaccine?

Yes, pregnant women should get a flu shot to protect themselves and their developing babies. To learn more about flu vaccine safety during pregnancy, visit Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnancy.

How is the safety of flu vaccines monitored?

CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) closely monitor the safety of vaccines approved for use in the United States. CDC uses two primary systems to monitor the safety of flu vaccines:

  1. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS): an early warning system that helps CDC and FDA monitor problems following vaccination. Anyone can report possible vaccine side effects to VAERS. Generally, VAERS reports cannot determine if an adverse event was caused by a vaccine, but these reports can help determine if further investigations are needed.
  2. Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD): A collaboration between CDC and nine health care organizations which allows ongoing monitoring and proactive searches of vaccine-related data.
  3. THANKS TO Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People
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