Inca Gold: Illapa

As a mostly agriculture-based society, the Inca worshipped what was important to them. They worshipped Inti the Sun-God who provided sunlight and enlightenment. Mama Quilla the Moon-god who provided the seasons, protection from the dark, and was a protector of women. The third God would be the essential piece missing for an agricultural society to thrive and that God’s name was Illapa, Master of Clouds Rain and Hail.

The Inca believed that when it rained it was because a jug of water had been spilled from a broken water jug high in the sky. This water jug contained water from the Milk Way Galaxy.

Works cited:

https://religionoftheinca.weebly.com/inca-gods.html

Inca Gold: Viracocha

Viracocha was considered to be the father of all other Inca gods. He created the earth, heavens, sun, moon, and all things living. After Viracocha finished his work he traveled the world teaching humanity and introducing civilized arts. It was believed that after Viracocha was finished creating the world that he traveled far and wide teaching and influencing his creations. His next step would be to move west across the Pacific. Never to be seen again but promising to return. In his absence, lesser gods were assigned to the duty of managing the human race.

Inca lore surrounding Viracocha states that humans were his second attempt at creating life. He originally created a race of giants , made of stone , in the age of darkness. The ogre race was found to be unruly and Viracocha found it suitable to punish them with a great flood. The giants that survived were eventually returned to their natural stone form. Some of these stone giants can still be seen today at sites such as Tiahuanaco and Pukara.

For his second attempt Viracocha tried using clay. He also gifted them clothes, language , agriculutre, and arts. It was during this time he created the Sun , moon , and stars. It’s believed that all of these creations were created from the islands in Lake Titicaca. Viracocha was satisfied and felt he could he continue this path around the world. It is believed he ended in Manta (near Ecuador), then Viracocha walked across the waters of the Pacific heading west. He promised to return one day to the Inca.

Works cited:

https://www.ancient.eu/Viracocha/

Inca Gold: Manco Capac and Mama Ocllo

Inti was concerned for the Tiawanako people. Living along the shores of Lake Titicaca, the Tiawanako people were mostly fishermen. Inti felt his people deserved more.

The son and daughter of Inti and Mama Quilla; Manco Capac and Mama Ocllo were created to civilize the Inca people and guide them to enlightenment. Manco Capac and Mama Ocllo were told by their parents to search for fertile land upon which their empire would be built. Inti gifted Manco Capac and Mama Ocllo a golden stick. Inti instructed them that the stick would sink if the wielder was standing in the promised land. The promised land they found was a region near Lake Titicaca.

The shores of Lake Titicaca were inhabited by the Tiawanako people. Because of the gold stick, the fancy clothes, and jewelry Manco Capac and Mama Ocllo wore they were perceived as Gods by the Tiawanako people. Manco Capac and Mama Ocllo taught the men how to create a society and worship the Sun God. Mama Ocllo taught the women domestic tasks such as textile and provisioning.

Works cited:

https://www.machupicchu.org/the_legend_of_manco_capac_and_mama_ocllo.htm

Inca Gold: Inti

Inti God of The Sun and Patron of Empire and Conquest was all-powerful. Inti was married to the goddess of the moon Quilla ( or Mama Quilla ). The original leader and founder of the Inca civilization, Manco Capac and his wife Mama Ocllo were believed to be guided by Inti or may have even been the son and daughter of Inti and Mama Quilla. This connection to humans allowed Inca rulers to claim divinity and act as translators between the Gods and the Inca people.

It wasn’t until the Wiraqocha Inca (1425 CE) or the 9th Inca ruler Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (1438-1471 CE) that the cult of Inti really became established and helped promote Inti to an all-powerful ruler. Inti was not the divine ruler though. This burden weighed on Viracocha. Viracocha was higher in status than all the other Gods and lived on a private island in Lake Titicaca. Viracocha usually remained in the background regarding worldly affairs and allowed the other gods to govern the Incas. With the expansion of the Inca empire and a fixation on Inti and sun worship; It was not long until every city in the Inca empire contained a shrine to Inti. Sun worship was quickly integrated into the religions of the conquered peoples and used as imperial propaganda that the Inca were the people with a divine right to rule.

The greatest of these temples dedicated to Inti was the Coricancha Temple or “House of The Sun”. The temple was located in the sacred district of the capital of Cusco. It was at the Coricancha that the most senior High Priest of The Sun (Villac Umu) presided over rites in honour of Inti. The High Priest of the Sun was exclusively assisted by young virgin priestesses. Both female and male priests were allowed to carry out sun ceremonies but only virgin priestesses were allowed to assist The High Priest of The Sun.

Inti was usually represented through art. A gold statue, a sun disk, or a golden mask. Gold ( or the sweat of the sun as sun worshipers believed ) was his gift and he should be honored through it. The Temple of The Sun interior was exactly that. It’s walls lined with a thick gold plate ( 700 half-meter panels of beaten gold whilst outside the temple was a life-size scene of a field of corn with llamas and shepherds all made from gold and silver. Inside the shrine held the most sacred statue of Inti. The statue was of Inti but as a small seated boy, called Punchao (Day or Midday Sun). From head to shoulders sun rays protruded from him. His head wrapped in a royal headband and also had snakes and lions coming out of his body. The stomach of the statue was hollow and used to contain the vital organs of previous Inca rulers. Every day this statue would be moved outside and into the golden field so that Inti could absorb the sun’s rays.

To be continued..

Works Cited:

https://www.ancient.eu/Inti/

https://www.ancient.eu/Inca_Civilization/

Inca Gold: A Brief History

It’s important to understand that the Andreans (Aboriginal inhabitants of the area of the Central Andes in South America) didn’t have a written language, they hadn’t developed the wheel, money, buying and selling, or even the concept of an economy. Imagine a world with no economy and a strong religious presence but with an excess of gold.

The Inca civilization arose from the Peruvian highlands sometime in the early 13th century. The Inca created one of the largest and cohesive empires the world has ever known in under a century. Every aspect of Inca culture was encompassed by religion. The administrative, political and military center of the empire was located in the city of Cusco. Success or failure in any form was considered to be directly influenced by their gods. For the Inca, Gold was a gift from the Inti and it should be used to honor him along with the other Inca gods. If Inti was not honored there could be severe consequences.

Inti was the God of The Sun and The Patron of Empire and Conquest. Inti was revered and held in prestige by his devoted. He gave and he took away as he saw fit. Every city had temples devoted to Inti. The most significant temple of the Inca empire was Coricancha in Cusco city. Coricancha means “house of gold” in Quechua ( Inca official language). Its walls were covered in thick gold layers. Innumerable amounts of gold coins, jewelry, and religious artifacts dedicated to Inti were inside. Where’s all the gold now? What happened to it? What happened to the people who supposedly recovered it? We’ll explore these topics in more in the following weeks!

To be continued..

Sources Cited:

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/archaeology-and-history/archaeology/lost-inca-gold/

https://nga.gov.au/exhibition/incas/default.cfm?IRN=227632&BioArtistIRN=91406&MnuID=SRCH&ViewID=2

Gold reserve

Image result for the amount of gold ever mined

gold reserve was the gold held by a national central bank, intended mainly as a guarantee to redeem promises to pay depositors, note holders (e.g. paper money), or trading peers, during the eras of the gold standard, and also as a store of value, or to support the value of the national currency.

The World Gold Council estimates that all the gold ever mined totaled 187,200 metric tons in 2017[1] but other independent estimates vary by as much as 20%.[2] At a price of US$1,250 per troy ounce, reached on 16 August 2017, one ton of gold has a value of approximately US$40.2 million. The total value of all gold ever mined would exceed US$7.5 trillion at that valuation and using WGC 2017 estimates.

Wartime relevance

During most of history, a nation’s gold reserves were considered its key financial asset and a major prize of war.

A typical view was expressed in a secret memorandum by the British Chief of the Imperial General Staff from October 1939, at the beginning of World War II. The British Military and the British Secret Service laid out “measures to be taken in the event of an invasion of Holland and Belgium by Germany” and presented them to the War Cabinet:

It will be for the Treasury in collaboration with the Bank of England, and the Foreign Office, to examine the possible means of getting the bullion and negotiable securities into the same place of safety. The transport of many hundreds of tons of bullion presents a difficult problem and the loading would take a long time. The ideal would of course be to have the gold transferred to this country or to the United States of America. […] The gold reserves of Belgium and Holland amount to about £70 million and £110 million respectively. [Foot]Note: H. M. Treasury has particularly requested that this information, which is highly confidential should in no circumstances be divulged. The total weight of this bullion amounts to about 1800 tons and its evacuation would be a matter of the utmost importance would present a considerable problem if it had to be undertaken in a hurry when transport facilities were disorganized. At present this gold is believed to be stored at Brussels and The Hague respectively, neither of which is very well placed for its rapid evacuation in an emergency.[3]

The Belgian government transferred one third of its gold reserves to the UK, another third to Canada and the United States and most of the remainder to southern France. Following the outbreak of war, the gold held in France was sent to Dakar, the capital of Senegal, then part of the French colonial empire. This was against the Belgian Government’s wishes, with the Belgians having directed the French to transfer it to the United States. After the Germans occupied Belgium and France in 1940, they demanded the Belgian gold reserve held in Senegal. In 1941, Vichy French officials arranged the transport of 4,944 boxes with 198 tons of gold to officials of the German Reichsbank and the German Government used it to purchase commodities and munitions from neutral countries. The Banque de France fully compensated the Belgian National Bank for the loss of its gold after the war.[4]

IMF holdings

Since early 2011, the gold holdings of the IMF have been constant at 90.5 million troy ounces (2,814.1 metric tons).[5]

Officially reported holdings

The IMF regularly maintains statistics of national assets as reported by various countries.[6] This data is used by the World Gold Council to periodically rank and report the gold holdings of countries and official organizations.

On 17 July 2015, China announced that it increased its gold reserves by about 57 percent from 1,054 to 1,658 metric tons, while disclosing its official gold reserves for the first time in six years.

Nissan To Merge With Dodge And Jeep?

Another major automotive merger is in the cards.

When Sergio Marchionne (RIP) was CEO of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, he actively and quite publically pursued a partnership or merger with another mainstream automaker. GM was one of them. He knocked but the other side didn’t open the door, and that was that. But Marchionne understood the big picture that automakers would be stronger if they created alliances. Their futures would depend on doing so. Heck, he orchestrated Fiat’s successful purchase of Chrysler.

His successor, Mike Manley, also sees what Marchionne saw, so it wasn’t a big surprise last week when it was reported PSA, consisting of Peugeot, Citroen, Opel and Vauxhall, and FCA had discussed the possibility of merging. An agreement wasn’t made for a number of reasons, but now The Financial Times, via Automotive News, has learned that Renault and Nissan intend to make a joint bid for FCA.27

The Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi Alliance has been front and center in the headlines since November when its now former chairman, Carlos Ghosn, was arrested in Tokyo for financial wrongdoing. Since then, the automakers have been renegotiating their alliance, which both hope to complete within the next year. Once that’s done, the plan is to make a deal for FCA.

The ultimate goal is to create an even bigger alliance that could better compete against the Volkswagen Group and Toyota. Now that the dust has settled somewhat since the Ghosn scandal broke out, Renault-Nissan has named Jean-Dominique Senard as its new chairman. Aside from Renault-Nissan and PSA, this isn’t the first time in recent years an automaker was interested in purchasing FCA, or at least part of it.

A couple of years ago, China’s Great Wall Motor Co. wanted to buy Jeep, but FCA was rightly unwilling to part with its most profitable brand. But a Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi-FCA tie up, however it’s decided, could be a good fit. Aside from major cost savings involving suppliers, R&D, and manufacturing, each brand would likely gain a foothold into markets where it’s currently weak.

But for now, no decisions have been made and spokespeople for all companies involved refuse to comment. Make no mistake though, it looks like FCA will soon be cutting a deal with someone.

Source: carbuzz.com | JAY TRAUGOTT

Instant Pot Chicken & Rice

By now you’ve likely picked up the new kitchen appliance that everyone can’t seem to get enough of these days. The Instant Pot seems to have been an instant success. We will occasionally visit recipes for the Instant Pot on Tuesday’s Home Cooked blog posts. We thought we’d start with one of the most basic and commonly made dishes, Chicken & Rice. We sourced this recipe from delish.com. It’s pretty spot on in our opinion though we did parenthetically note one adjustment that we found beneficial. Enjoy and bon appétit!

INGREDIENTS

Image saltandlavender.com
  • 1 tbsp.  olive oil
  • 1/2 yellow onion, chopped
  • 2 cloves garlic, minced
  • 1 tsp. dried oregano
  • 1 tsp. smoked paprika
  • 1 c. white rice
  • Kosher salt
  • Freshly ground black pepper
  • 1 1/4 c. low-sodium chicken broth or water (we recommend 1 3/4 – 2 c.)
  • 2 medium carrots, diced
  • 1 red bell pepper, chopped
  • 3 boneless skinless chicken breasts
  • chopped parsley, for garnish

DIRECTIONS

  1. Preheat Instant Pot by setting to “Sauté”. Add olive oil and cook onion until slightly softened for 3 to 4 minutes. Add garlic, oregano, and paprika and cook until fragrant, 1 minute.
  2. Stir in rice and broth and season with salt and pepper. Add carrots, bell pepper, and chicken, and season generously again with salt and pepper.  
  3. Close lid, change setting to manual or “Pressure Cook” and set for 8 minutes on high. When 8 minutes is up, let pot decompress naturally for 10 minutes, then release pressure, remove lid, and shred chicken. Top with parsley before serving.

Source: delish.com | LENA ABRAHAM

Are You Willing to Do Whatever It Takes?

Today’s Motivation Monday comes from an article we love from Success.com by
Kim Orlesky. We hope you appreciate it as much as we did!

As she sat across from me in the boardroom, having just finished telling me her goals for the next year, I could see a mix of excitement and insecurity in her eyes. Her goals were lofty—her financial goals, where she wanted to see her business flourish and the customers she wanted to reach. She told me she dreamed of retiring on a beach in Costa Rica within the next five years. Nothing she said was unreasonable, but I knew she had a difficult path in front of her.

That’s when I asked her the one question I ask everyone who sits across from me: “Are you willing to do whatever it takes?

There are a lot of actions that we need to take to get where we are going. Those who are committed to do anything and everything to make their dreams a reality need to create momentum.

1. How determined are you?

Asking “are you willing to do whatever it takes?” creates a movement inside you and has you consider the actions you really need to take. If the answer is anything but yes, then the goal isn’t right. You need to go back and choose something you are willing to do anything to achieve. For many people, the answer is an immediate and resounding yes—the goal is so big, so lofty and so inspiring, they would do whatever it takes to get there.

2. Think outside the box.

If you are willing to do whatever it takes to get to your goal, the follow-up question is: “What do you need to get there?” This is where people start to struggle. In many cases, the actions people take are the correct ones—consistent actions that propel you toward your goal. But if that was enough, why aren’t you closer to your goal by now? Consider what else you could do to get there. Who could you contact that has succeeded in the past? What groups, classes or events could you join?

3. Step outside of your comfort zone.

If you are willing to do anything to achieve your goal, that also means taking actions you’ve never taken before. This might mean contacting people above you, making financial investments you might not feel entirely ready for, or seeking out opportunities for increased brand exposure. Whatever it is, you need to move past the fear and be willing to take the first step forward. If you stay where you are, you will never get closer to your goal.

4. Take massive action.

Beyond doing the actions that will bring you closer to your goals, you must also be willing to dream and act bigger. You cannot win big contracts if you’re not willing to reach out to decision makers at large organizations. You cannot be given opportunities to speak on large stages if you don’t contact the organizers. Those who are willing to do whatever it takes will look toward their ultimate dream and take the necessary massive action to bring immediate results, instead of hoping they will eventually work their way up to that point. There’s a saying that if you never ask, the answer will always be no, but if you just ask, you might get a yes.

5. Follow up and follow through.

It is not enough to take massive action once, you must do it over and over. You might put in your requests and never hear back. This could happen several times. People get busy; they forget about emails; they never check their voicemail—no different than you or me. You might have to follow up several times before receiving a response. You might have to make several presentations before you finally nail it. Once that moment hits, express it with gratitude and ensure the person and opportunity is not forgotten. Use that moment as momentum for your next big step, because you were willing to do whatever it takes to get to your goal—and you will be able to do it all over again.

Source: success.com | Kim Orlesky

What Type of Grill Is Right for You?

There’s a good chance you fall into one of these five categories.

It’s not quite a summer party without the smell of a grill out back. But which is best for you? That depends on what kind of backyard boss you want to be. One of these five should fit the bill.

For the Technophile

Your grilling style: Constantly monitoring

relates to What Type of Grill Is Right for You?
Traeger Timberline 1300.Source: Vendor

If you want the ease of gas but the flavor of wood, a pellet grill is still an underappreciated option. The Traeger Timberline 1300 will automatically feed fuel to maintain your desired temperature, so you don’t have to do it yourself. You can even monitor the action on your phone over a WiFire app. (Downside: Now the Russians can get you through your grill, too.) $2,000

For the Social Butterfly

Your grilling style: More style than grill

relates to What Type of Grill Is Right for You?
Everdure Cube, by Heston Blumenthal.Source: Vendor

Good looks and great-tasting food shouldn’t be an either-or proposition. The Everdure Cube, released under the aegis of British chef Heston Blumenthal, comes in fun colorways that are enhanced with practical touches, such as bottom venting to keep it from overheating whatever it’s standing on. $200

For the Classicist

Your grilling style: Easy, low, and slow

relates to What Type of Grill Is Right for You?
Weber Summit Charcoal LP Black.Source: Vendor

The latest 24-inch Weber Summit updates the famed kettle design with a black porcelain-enameled finish and air-insulated, double-walled construction, so it can hold its temperature for as long as 10 hours. A liquid propane self-ignition system upgrades it further, but people will still think you’re chill. $1,700

For the Showoff

Your grilling style: Fickle

relates to What Type of Grill Is Right for You?
Kalamazoo K1000HT Hybrid Fire grill.Source: Vendor

The Kalamazoo K1000HT Hybrid Fire can burn charcoal and wood, or you can leave the drawer empty to turn it into a turbocharged gas grill. Customize one of the four laser-cut surfaces with your initials, so every steak and burger comes off the fire monogrammed. It’s sure to impress your son’s friends from boarding school. $28,880

For the Cultist

Your grilling style: Patient

relates to What Type of Grill Is Right for You?
Big Green EggSource: Vendor

We all know at least one insufferable Big Green Egg evangelist. The heavyweight, thick-walled grills have incredible heat retention with relatively little fuel, which means your food can grill deeply over a long period. This MiniMax is nominally portable, at just 19.5 inches tall. Still, it weighs a stout 76 pounds and can roast a 12-pound turkey (or cook four burgers at a time) on its 13-inch grill. $598

Source: bloomberg.com | Matthew Kronsberg