Facts About Dental Gold

At Manhattan Gold & Silver, one of our biggest client bases comes from the dental industry. Not many people are familiar with the intricacies of gold use in a dental practice, but there are many interesting facets of dental gold and how it functions in the mouth.

The mouth is a tough environment for just about any substance. After all, the mouth’s purpose is to break down food. Gold is one of those unique materials that can stand up to the punishment the mouth dishes out. Gold is completely inert to all body chemistry, so it won’t corrode in the mouth. It’s also tough enough to stand up to chewing and biting, so it’s an ideal material to use in crowns, fillings, and bridgework.

However, because the mouth is such a tough environment, pure gold is not used in dentistry. As you may know, pure gold is extremely malleable – so 24k gold would likely become deformed in the mouth over time. As such, dental gold is usually a 16k alloy containing other metals such as palladium, silver, copper and/or tin. This fact combined with the small size of the dental implant means that any one crown or bridge is not worth that much in gold. The real money comes in when you can collect a bunch of these, but is usually only possible if you are a dentist.

Sometimes, when dental gold is brought to a refiner, it’s still stuck to the tooth. Techniques for removing the tooth vary, but popular methods include using a jewelers hammer or an overnight soaking in cola to loosen the bond and remove the gold.  We would melt and assay the material.

Today, fillings are more commonly made of other less expensive and/or cosmetically desirable substances like mercury amalgam or polymer compounds. However, gold is still the strongest and longest lasting material a dentist can use.  Amalgam we do not process because it contains mercury.

 

https://www.mgsrefining.com/blog/post/2011/09/20/Facts-About-Dental-Gold.aspx

Materials Engineering: Little-known facts about precious metals

Materials Engineering: Little-known facts about precious metals

The melting points and densities of the so-called Noble Metals, coupled with their resistance to chemical attack, sets them apart from most other materials.

May 08, 2008

Edited by Jean M. Hoffman

Unless you work with precious metal (PM) frequently, your knowledge of these metals is probably limited. The 15-min discussion devoted to PMs in college materials-science classes likely did not do justice to the engineering value for these eight elements. If you did not know there were eight (No, titanium is not one of them.), read on to find out what your professor probably did not know either.

A precious metal is a rare metallic element of high economic value. PMs are also referred to as Noble Metals because they resist most types of environmental and chemical attack. One of the few chemical solutions that attacks them (with the exception of iridium) is aqua regia. Only copper and PMs are found in nature in their metallic state. All other metals are processed from minerals or ores into metals which are inherently unstable and have a tendency to revert to their more stable mineral forms.

PMs, as a group, have a set of physical and chemical properties that are unrivaled by many other materials. If PMs were more available (in both quantitative and economic terms), there would be far more applications overall. Though typical applications use only small amounts, PMs may be used in large quantities when there is no feasible substitute.

The eight PMs — gold (Au), silver (Ag), platinum (Pt), iridium (Ir), palladium (Pd), rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (Ru), and osmium (Os) — are conveniently grouped together in the periodic table. A subset of this group is called the Platinum Group Metals (PGM), which includes all but Au and Ag. Typically the PGMs are found combined together in rich ore. Chemical processing extracts the individual elements. The short supply (there are only a few major mining locations), economic value, and costly mining and extraction methods have raised the cost of these metals substantially.

In 2004, South Africa produced a total of 5 million troy ounces of Pt (70% of the world’s output) and 8 million troy ounces of PGMs (50% of the world’s output). It takes about a ton of rich ore to produce approximately 1 troy ounce of PGMs, at best. Some mines only produce PGMs on the level of 5 to 25 gm/ton of processed ore.

BASIC PROPERTIES

PM properties typically differ from those of conventional metals in two primary areas: melting point and density. The melting point (MP) for low-alloy steel is about 2,800°F with a density in the range of 7.8 gm/cm3; compare this to Ag, Au, and Pt, for example, with respective melting points of 1,764, 1,947, and 3,216°F and densities of 10.5, 19.3, and 21.5 gm/cm3. These features, coupled with their resistance to chemical attack, set PMs apart from most other materials. The range of applications for PMs are diverse and they serve in applications where other materials won’t work.

Electrical and thermal conductivity: Many of the PMs have excellent electrical and thermal conductivity. Silver has the distinction of having the highest room-temperature conductivity of the PMs, as well as the highest of all metals. It should be no surprise that copper is the metal more predominantly used for electrical wire instead of Ag because it costs much less.

Corrosion resistance: PMs form, in some cases, an almost imperceptible oxide film. Their use as plating materials are effective and very broad. Additionally, these metals and their alloys are used in cathodic-protection systems to protect large-scale systems from the effects of corrosion.

Catalysts: Pt, Pd, Rh and their various alloys are widely used catalysts in large and small chemical reactors such as vehicle exhausts. A rich solution “washed” onto a ceramic substrate can leave a catalytic surface. The surface can also be a robust construction of woven or knit wire that provides a large-scale surface for chemical production. These are the primary applications for PGMs. Pt-based catalysts have been used for nitric acid production for more than 100 years.

High temperature applications: Combined high MP temperatures and low reactivity at elevated temperatures is a key quality of PGMs. Steel melts at 2,800°F, while Pt, Rh, and Ir have MPs of 3,216; 3,560; and 4,429°F, respectively. Vessels made from Pt, Pt-Rh, and Ir are used in the making of fiberglass and silicon ingots, as well as for the melting of other high MP, reactive media. One clever application uses Pt and the zirconium oxide formed during powdered-metal spraying to produce a highly creep-resistant material even when heated close to its melting point. Zirconia-grain-stabilized (ZGS) platinum and Pt-Rh alloys have been used in the glass industry for many years. The addition of zirconium and its subsequent oxidation during metal spraying create a grain structure that limits grain growth and boosts high-temperature creep strength.

Thermocouple devices: Thermocouples made from Pt and Pt-Rh wire pairs are unparalleled at giving accurate and finer temperature measurements. Currently, wire producers are able to make wire diameters small to keep costs low.

High-temperature heating coils: A heating coil can obviously only go as high as the melting point of the material used to construct it. PGM alloys can survive repeated oxidation cycles that can reduce the life of the heating coil. The use of PGM alloys satisfies both the issue of high service temperature and the problem of long-term oxidation attack.

Spark-erosion resistance applications: The development and application of Pt and Ir alloys along with pure Ir (some combinations of PMs are patented) has resulted in spark plugs that last for more than 100,000 miles. Some manufacturers use ball-bearing fabrication equipment to make small Pt alloy spheres that are then resistance welded onto the plug to form the electrode pair. For the more critical applications on aircraft, short pieces of Ir rod-stock material are centerlessly ground to an exacting size and form and then installed in the spark plug. Additionally, electrical contacts with an extended operational life have been made from Pt and Pd strip stock for various devices by high-speed stamping of small crowned circular blanks.

Fuel-cell applications: The electrical output from the fuel cell is made by combining hydrogen (the fuel) and oxygen (from air) over a catalyst such as platinum.

Biocompatibility and radio-opacity: The medical devices produced from PMs include stents, marker bands for angioplasty devices, pacemaker wire, endoscopy tips, and special surgical tools. The material most commonly used is Pt (or alloys of Pt), except for dental applications which use Au and Pd. X-rays don’t easily pass through Pt, Au, and Ir because of their atomic absorption coefficients, as well as their high densities. Thus these materials typically show up as a white area on film or scanning device. This property, referred to as radio-opacity, coupled with their biocompatibility properties, lets doctors see the exact location of these materials when used within the human body.

Pharmaceutical use: Pt-based drugs have been in use to treat cancer for 30 years and are the widely accepted standard-course-of-treatment for testicular cancer. Gold has also been used for the treatment of prostate cancer, whereby small gold “seeds” are irradiated and injected into the cancer site to kill the cancer cells by the slow release of radiation.

Labware, equipment and related devices: Pt and Ag resist attack from many substances. As such, they are used as crucibles, electrodes, inoculating loops, ignition boats, and many other forms of labware. Because these materials are noble, the testing method is not skewed by contamination from the test equipment. Basic forms of material (wire, tube, sheet, and strip) can be fabricated into countless products for industrial use.

Photographic applications: At one time, the Eastman Kodak Co. was the single largest user of Ag in the world. Many films and photo papers used silver compounds as the light-sensitive emulsion. Pt and Pd compounds also were used to produce black and white printing paper, which was and still is considered by many to be the best paper for fine tonal reproduction. These prints are the most resistant to environmental attack.

Coinage, collector’s items, and jewelry: PMs have been used throughout history for currency and jewelry. Our ability to examine past cultures is due, in part, to the nobleness of these materials. They are able to survive hundreds or even thousands of years of concealment and burial and still be viable as a historical record. Jewelry accounts for the second largest demand of PMs. md

John C. Keefe previously worked as the manager of Manufacturing Engineering at Johnson Matthey (Precious Metals Div.) in West Chester, Pa., where he supervised engineering and fabrication of a range of products made from precious metals and their alloys.

Quick facts

A different weight measurement system is used for precious metals. The standard unit is the troy ounce. The troy ounce (to) is different than our common ounce, in that it has a mass of 31.1035 gm versus 28.350 gm for the standard (avoirdupois) ounce (32.1507 to = 1 kg). Even when referring to large amounts of precious metal, the quantity is still expressed in troy ounces.

Gold (Au) has the longest and most storied history of all the precious metals. It is the most malleable of metals and therefore can be worked with simple tools to form complex shapes. The metal’s low MP has made it one of the first metals that could be readily cast. Its excellent corrosion resistance, thermal, and electrical properties have made it a top design choice for many devices. The ability to plate gold in extremely thin layers still allows for more extensive application of the material. The cost of gold is constantly varying; currently it costs about $980/to.

Silver (Ag) has the best room-temperature electrical and thermal conductivity of all metals. The principal sources of Ag are as an associated element from the mining of copper, copper-nickel, Au, lead and, lead-zinc ores obtained from Canada, Mexico, Peru, Australia, and the U.S. Silver has found many applications primarily because of its lower melting point and ease of fabrication. Silver is the most available and least costly of the precious metals at $20/to.

Platinum (Pt) occurs naturally and is accompanied by small quantities of the other PGMs. It is a beautiful silvery-white metal that is malleable. The metal is extensively used in jewelry, wire, vessels for laboratory use, and in many valuable industrial products including thermocouples, medical devices, and anticancer drugs. It is also used for electrical contacts, corrosion-resistant devices, and in dentistry. Pt-cobalt alloys have powerful magnetic properties. One such alloy, made of Pt-23.3 wt.% Co, offers a maximum magnetic field strength almost twice that of AlNiCo V, a strong permanent-magnet material. Resistance wires made from Pt are used in the construction of high-temperature electric furnaces. Pt can be drawn into fine wire and then knit into fabric referred to as gauze. The gauze is then fabricated into a large catalytic surface. It has long been used in the process for producing sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and nitric acid (HNO3). The present cost for Pt is approximately $2,045/to.

Iridium (Ir) is the rarest precious metal and the densest material known. It is more difficult to mechanically work than any other face-centered cubic (FCC) metal. This has been attributed to a reduction in ductility caused by trace element impurities that cause a modification of the grain boundary behavior. Its high tensile strength at elevated temperatures and high MP, makes it viable for crucibles in crystal growing. Hot working is one of the few ways to reasonably work the metal. Precise dimensional cuts are difficult, but are best achieved from either grinding or wire-EDM. Iridium is the most resistant of all metals to corrosion; it is insoluble in mineral acids including aqua regia. Resistance to spark erosion has made this element popular for spark plug applications.

Palladium (Pd) is a steel-white metal which doesn’t tarnish in air but can be attacked by nitric and sulfuric acids. It has the lowest density and melting point of the PGMs. At room temperature the metal has the unique property of absorbing up to 900 times its own volume of hydrogen. Hydrogen readily diffuses through heated palladium and development of this property provides a means of purifying the gas. The metal and its alloys are used in dentistry, watch making, surgical instruments, catalytic converters, jewelry trade, and electrical contacts.

Rhodium (Rh) occurs naturally with other PGMs. It has a high reflectance and is hard and durable. Sputtering targets of Rh are used to make the reflective surface for automobile mirrors and other optical instruments. As a bulk metal, it is mostly used as an alloying agent to harden Pt and Pd. Such alloys go in furnace windings, thermocouple elements, and to make bushings for glass fiber production. The addition of Rh increases both the operation temperature and the mechanical properties of the material. Rhodium also serves in a range of catalyst applications and in alloys and coatings for jewelry. Rhodium has the current distinction of being the most costly precious metal at over $9,300/to.

Ruthenium (Ru) is a hard, white metal mainly used as an alloying agent for platinum. The addition of 0.1% ruthenium to titanium immensely improves the corrosion resistance. It is a versatile catalyst and can help promote the splitting of hydrogen sulfide. Pure Ru is a difficult material to work.

Osmium (Os) is used almost exclusively as an alloying agent and has the distinction of having the highest melting point of the precious metals. Certain forms (tetroxides) are highly toxic. Osmium tetroxide is used in forensic science as a stain for fingerprints, microscope samples, and DNA materials. The metal is lustrous, bluish-white, and extremely hard and brittle even at high temperatures.

 

Fun fact

The density of gold and platinum is almost twice that of lead, whose density = 11.34 gm/cm3. In most old western movies, and more recently in the George Clooney movie called Three Kings (1999), the “bad guys” are shown loading gold bars. This is a bit far-fetched because many of the bars at the sizes shown would weigh close to 80 or 90 lb. A saddlebag of these plus the rider would be too much for the horse, or a human, to carry. Most people don’t have the opportunity to actually lift a gold bar, so Hollywood perpetuates the myth.

Iridium’s high melting point and resistance to chemical attack makes it the preferred material for crucibles used in the production of high purity single crystals of various metal oxides used in a variety of applications. Photo courtesy of Johnsom Matthey.

The eight precious metals — gold (Au), silver (Ag), platinum (Pt), iridium (Ir), palladium (Pd), rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (Ru), and osmium (Os) — are conveniently grouped together in the periodic table.

http://www.machinedesign.com/archive/materials-engineering-little-known-facts-about-precious-metals

DIAMOND FACTS AND DIAMOND TRIVIA EVERYTHING YOU EVER WANTED TO LEARN ABOUT DIAMONDS AND MORE

There are so many Fun Facts and Interesting Bits of Information about Diamonds, that they’re sure to Fascinate many.

Below are great Facts, Trivia, and Intriguing curiosities, that most don’t even know.

Test your Knowledge and see how much you know about Diamonds and Diamond History!

Enjoy the Diamond Trivia Facts!


It takes 250 tons of Earth to obtain a 1.00 Carat Diamond!


Diamonds are NOT the Hardest Substance on Earth. They are the Hardest “Natural” Substance, but man-made Synthetics are Harder!


98% of all Diamonds are NOT actually White in Color!


It takes 1405 Degrees of Heat to Burn a Diamond!


The Average Diamond Size for an Engagement Ring is only .38 Carat!


Only Diamond can Scratch or Polish another Diamond!


Diamonds come in Wonderful Fancy Colors like, Pink, Blue, Green, Champagne, Black, Chocolate, Yellow, Red, Gray, and even Purples!


Diamonds have Less Brilliance, Sparkle and Fire than a man-made Cubic Zirconia (CZ) has.


Diamonds can Chip or Break with a good blow to the Edge of the Diamond.


Diamonds do NOT Float in Water! That’s why Diamonds are often found in River Beds!


Some Diamonds can actually Glow-In-The-Dark! (Known as Fluorescence!)


The Largest Diamond in the World is the Cullinan Diamond weighing 3,106 Carats! Wow!


Diamonds have a Refractive Index of 2.42


Diamond Brilliance is White Sparkles of light coming from the Diamond!


Diamond Fire is Colored Sparkles of light coming from the Diamond!


Diamond Percentages are all compared to the Widest part of the Diamond, the Girdle!


Most Colored Diamonds are Heat-Treated to improve Color!


85% of all the Diamonds mined are NOT used in Jewelry!


You CAN Crush a Diamond with a Hammer!


A lot of Skin Care Products on the market today use Diamond Dust as an Active Ingredient.


Diamonds were originally weighed against the Seed of a Carob Tree!


Diamonds from Outer Space? Yep, that’s coming up…


The Crystalline System of a Diamond is Cubic!


Diamonds are made of 100% Pure Carbon!


The Specific Gravity of a Diamond is 3.52


Diamonds are a 10 on the Mohs Scale of Hardness. (The Absolute Hardness is 1600!)


Diamonds are over 3.4 Billion Years old!


Diamonds come from a Volcanic Rock called Kimberlite!


Diamonds are actually mentioned in the Bible! (Exodus)


Archduke Maximilian started the whole Diamond Engagement Ring Tradition in 1477!


Diamonds have come from Outer Space! (Appearing in Crashed Meteorites!)


The name Diamond comes from the Greek word “Adamas“.


There is a Diamond Mine in Arkansas (Crater of Diamonds State Park), that is open to the public so they can Dig for Diamonds!


The Diamond Color Chart starts with the letter D. (There is no A, B or C)


Diamonds are believed to give Strength, Courage and provide Invincibility!


America buys 50% of all the Diamonds mined in the World!


The Hope Diamond has been Cursed for hundreds of years!


Diamond is the Official Gemstone for the State of Arkansas!


Diamond is also the Official Birthstone for the Month of April!


Diamonds Ground up into Dust have been used to not only Poison people, but Kill them!


Romans believed that Diamonds gave them Magical Powers!


Out of all the 4 C’s, Diamond Cut is the most important!


Diamonds can be Cut into any Shape or object desired.


The Brilliant Cut (Round) Diamond is the only Cut of Diamond that gives you both the Maximum Amount of Brilliance and Fire in a Diamond.


Hindus believe that Flawed Diamonds carry Bad Luck.


Most Diamonds mined from the Earth are used as Industrial Diamonds for Cutting, Grinding and Sanding Tools!


The most Popular Cut of Diamond is the Round Brilliant Cut Diamond!


See… That was FUN! 🙂

PRECIOUS METAL JEWELRY

PRECIOUS METAL JEWELRY

Gumuchian Earrings

The word gold, used by itself, means all gold or it can refer to “pure” gold, meaning 24 karat (24K) gold. Because 24K gold is soft, it’s usually mixed with other metal jewelry called alloys to increase its hardness and durability. If a piece of jewelry is not 24 karat gold, the karat quality should accompany any claim that the item is gold.
The karat quality marking tells you what proportion of gold is mixed with the other metals. Fourteen-karat (14K) jewelry contains 14 parts of gold, mixed in throughout with 10 parts of an alloy metal. The higher the karat rating, the higher the proportion of gold in the piece of jewelry.

Jewelry should be marked with its karat quality. Near the karat quality mark, you also should see the name or the U.S. registered trademark of the company that will stand behind the mark. The trademark may be in the
form of a name, symbol or initials. If you don’t see a trademark accompanying a quality mark on a piece of jewelry, look for another piece.

List of precious metals:

Platinum is a type of precious metal jewelry that costs more than gold. It usually is mixed with other similar metals, known as the platinum group metals: iridium, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium and osmium.
Different markings are used on platinum jewelry as compared with gold jewelry, based on the amount of pure platinum in the piece. The quality markings for platinum are based on parts per thousand.

For example, the marking 900 Platinum means that 900 parts out of 1000 are pure platinum, or in other words, the item is 90% platinum and 10% other metals. The abbreviations for platinum — Plat. or Pt. — also can be used in marking jewelry.

Metalsmiths Sterling

The words silver or sterling silver describe a product that contains 92.5% silver. Silver products sometimes may be marked 925 which means that 925 parts per thousand are pure silver.

Some jewelry may be described as silverplate: a layer of silver is bonded to a base metal. The mark coin silver is used for compounds that contain 90% silver. According to the law, quality-marked silver also must bear the name or a U.S. registered trademark of the company or person that will stand behind the mark.

Choose a Precious Metal that Fits Your Lifestyle

We all know that different people have different interests. But did you know that when choosing jewelry, you can pick a metal that fits your interests?

Certain precious metals, platinum for instance, are more durable and fit an active lifestyle. Look at the lifestyles below, and see the metals that fit yours!

True Romantic Tim 

Tim leads a moderately active lifestyle. He likes to play sports with his friends, but you won’t catch him on the field every day.

When it comes to romance, he’s a traditionalist. What should he do to match his lifestyle?

Buy gold.

Coveted for its luster and beauty, gold is the traditional metal for wedding rings. However, gold continues to hold its own among a bevy of new metals.

The percentage of gold in a ring is measured by karats. Since gold is a relatively soft metal, the higher the percentage of gold (and the higher the karat), the softer the ring. Men’s rings generally are made in 10, 14 and 18 karat gold, so that the rings will be more durable.

Most gold jewelry is either yellow or white. The alloys used will alter the color. Some gold is plated with rhodium to make it appear a brighter white. Since the coating can wear away with time, active individuals may prefer a more durable white metal such as platinum or palladium.

Visit your local American Gem Society jeweler for quarterly polishing and cleaning to keep the luster alive.

Everyday Evelyn

Evelyn likes to wear jewelry every day. Earrings, bracelets, rings, necklaces — and she likes to wear different jewelry often. What should she buy?

Silver.

Silver is the softest — and the least expensive — of the fine metals. Since it scratches easily, it is best used for jewelry that is not worn daily.

Since it is inexpensive, silver allows you to have many pieces you can switch out. People who are extremely active or enjoy gardening or working with their hands, may want to consider a harder metal.

Gotta Go Gary

Gary is active. He likes sports, and he often helps his wife in the garden. He’s found he often forgets to remove his gold wedding ring, and it is covered in scratches. What should Gary do?

Purchase titanium.

Coming in an array of silvery colors, titanium is a great metal for the most active of people. Titanium is the hardest of the metals, therefore more scratch, dent, and bend resistant. Another benefit is that in its pure form, titanium is 100% hypoallergenic.

Titanium does have its drawbacks: since it cannot be soldered, titanium rings cannot be sized and in an emergency, it is much harder to cut off than other metals.

Allergic Anna

Anna is young and active with many interests. But she also has sensitive skin, which white gold tends to irritate. Being young, she is still climbing the career ladder. What should she buy?

Palladium.

This is a popular choice among the young and active. As a white metal, palladium strikes a harmonic balance between white gold and platinum. Harder than gold, yet softer than platinum, palladium can be used in jewelry in its near pure form, making it hypoallergenic.

Also, palladium, unlike white gold, is naturally white. Palladium is also less expensive than platinum and can be sized and polished.

Nancy Nightlife

Nancy keeps her schedule full, day and night. She needs jewelry that can keep up with her and can have the style she needs if a late business dinner leaves her running for the night club. What should Nancy do?

Invest in platinum.

This prestigious — and expensive — metal is hypoallergenic dense, heavy and scratch resistant. It fits an active style where a sense of class and elegance are desired, even while on the run.

PRECIOUS METAL JEWELRY The word gold, used by itself, means all gold or it can refer to “pure” gold, meaning 24 karat (24K) gold. Because 24K gold is soft, it’s usually mixed with other metal jewelry called alloys to increase its hardness and durability. If a piece of jewelry is not 24 karat gold, the karat quality should accompany any claim that the item is gold. The karat quality marking tells you what proportion of gold is mixed with the other metals. Fourteen-karat (14K) jewelry contains 14 parts of gold, mixed in throughout with 10 parts of an alloy metal. The higher the karat rating, the higher the proportion of gold in the piece of jewelry. Jewelry should be marked with its karat quality. Near the karat quality mark, you also should see the name or the U.S. registered trademark of the company that will stand behind the mark. The trademark may be in the form of a name, symbol or initials. If you don’t see a trademark accompanying a quality mark on a piece of jewelry, look for another piece.  List of precious metals: Platinum is a type of precious metal jewelry that costs more than gold. It usually is mixed with other similar metals, known as the platinum group metals: iridium, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium and osmium.  Different markings are used on platinum jewelry as compared with gold jewelry, based on the amount of pure platinum in the piece. The quality markings for platinum are based on parts per thousand. For example, the marking 900 Platinum means that 900 parts out of 1000 are pure platinum, or in other words, the item is 90% platinum and 10% other metals. The abbreviations for platinum — Plat. or Pt. — also can be used in marking jewelry. The words silver or sterling silver describe a product that contains 92.5% silver. Silver products sometimes may be marked 925 which means that 925 parts per thousand are pure silver. Some jewelry may be described as silverplate: a layer of silver is bonded to a base metal. The mark coin silver is used for compounds that contain 90% silver. According to the law, quality-marked silver also must bear the name or a U.S. registered trademark of the company or person that will stand behind the mark. Choose a Precious Metal that Fits Your Lifestyle We all know that different people have different interests. But did you know that when choosing jewelry, you can pick a metal that fits your interests? Certain precious metals, platinum for instance, are more durable and fit an active lifestyle. Look at the lifestyles below, and see the metals that fit yours! True Romantic Tim  Tim leads a moderately active lifestyle. He likes to play sports with his friends, but you won’t catch him on the field every day. When it comes to romance, he’s a traditionalist. What should he do to match his lifestyle? Buy gold. Coveted for its luster and beauty, gold is the traditional metal for wedding rings. However, gold continues to hold its own among a bevy of new metals. The percentage of gold in a ring is measured by karats. Since gold is a relatively soft metal, the higher the percentage of gold (and the higher the karat), the softer the ring. Men’s rings generally are made in 10, 14 and 18 karat gold, so that the rings will be more durable. Most gold jewelry is either yellow or white. The alloys used will alter the color. Some gold is plated with rhodium to make it appear a brighter white. Since the coating can wear away with time, active individuals may prefer a more durable white metal such as platinum or palladium. Visit your local American Gem Society jeweler for quarterly polishing and cleaning to keep the luster alive. Everyday Evelyn Evelyn likes to wear jewelry every day. Earrings, bracelets, rings, necklaces — and she likes to wear different jewelry often. What should she buy? Silver. Silver is the softest — and the least expensive — of the fine metals. Since it scratches easily, it is best used for jewelry that is not worn daily. Since it is inexpensive, silver allows you to have many pieces you can switch out. People who are extremely active or enjoy gardening or working with their hands, may want to consider a harder metal. Gotta Go Gary Gary is active. He likes sports, and he often helps his wife in the garden. He’s found he often forgets to remove his gold wedding ring, and it is covered in scratches. What should Gary do? Purchase titanium. Coming in an array of silvery colors, titanium is a great metal for the most active of people. Titanium is the hardest of the metals, therefore more scratch, dent, and bend resistant. Another benefit is that in its pure form, titanium is 100% hypoallergenic. Titanium does have its drawbacks: since it cannot be soldered, titanium rings cannot be sized and in an emergency, it is much harder to cut off than other metals. Allergic Anna Anna is young and active with many interests. But she also has sensitive skin, which white gold tends to irritate. Being young, she is still climbing the career ladder. What should she buy? Palladium. This is a popular choice among the young and active. As a white metal, palladium strikes a harmonic balance between white gold and platinum. Harder than gold, yet softer than platinum, palladium can be used in jewelry in its near pure form, making it hypoallergenic. Also, palladium, unlike white gold, is naturally white. Palladium is also less expensive than platinum and can be sized and polished. Nancy Nightlife Nancy keeps her schedule full, day and night. She needs jewelry that can keep up with her and can have the style she needs if a late business dinner leaves her running for the night club. What should Nancy do? Invest in platinum. This prestigious — and expensive — metal is hypoallergenic dense, heavy and scratch resistant. It fits an active style where a sense of class and elegance are desired, even while on the run.

 

https://www.americangemsociety.org/en/precious-metal-jewelry

40 Amazing Facts About Jewellery

queen and crown jewels

Queen Elizabeth II in the Crown Jewels. Find out more about this piece below…

Humans have always loved decorating themselves. And the more scientists find out about our distant ancestors, the more interested in art and body decoration they seem to have been. Here are some fascinating facts about jewellery from around the world, just for fun!

40 fascinating jewellery facts

  1. What is the oldest known jewellery ever found ? 100,000 year old beads made from Nassarius shells.
  2. The word jewellery comes from jewel, from the old French jouel, which in turn comes from the latin jocale, which means ‘plaything’.
  3. The Americans call it jewelry, everyone else calls it jewellery.
  4. egyptian ankh jewellery

    The Egyptian Ankh

    In many cultures jewellery is supposed to ward off evil, for example the famous Egyptian ankh.

  5. Through history live insect jewellery has been popular. The Egyptians may have been the first to do so, wearing scarab beetles into battle. But the  Mexican Maquech Beetle and Giant Madagascar Hissing Cockroach have also been used in jewellery. In Britain the Victorians loved it, often sporting huge, vivid live beetles attached to their clothing by tiny, fine gold chains.
  6. 24 carat gold is 99.9% pure, and most US and European jewellers think it’s too soft for jewellery. But 24 carat gold is the norm across Asia, the Middle East and Africa.
  7. Platinum alloys range from 900 (90% pure) to 950 (95% pure).
  8. Venetian glass masters on the island of Murano developed crystalline glass, enamelled glass, glass including gold threads and a load more creative and revolutionary ways to make stunning glass beads. Venetian glass necklaces were sought after as early as the 1200s and are still made today.
  9. Diamonds were first mined in India.
  10. The Crown Jewels

    The British Crown Jewels

    The British crown jewels include the massive Cullinan Diamond, a chunk of the biggest ever gem-quality rough diamond ever found. It was discovered in 1905 and weighed 3,106.75 carats, which translates to 621.35g in weight. Blimey, that’s what we call bling!

  11. Engagement rings date back to 1477, first popularised by  the marriage of Maximilian the 1st to Mary of Burgundy.
  12. Amber, an organic gem, is made of fossilised tree resin. It must be at least a million years old to qualify as amber, but there are plenty of composite and reconstituted resin alternatives around, cheap as chips and NOT the real thing. If the price is too good to be true, it isn’t amber.
  13. Amber can be as old as 120 million years.
  14. Amethyst is just a version of quartz, but its beautiful purple colour makes it a popular semi-precious gem for jewellery. Rose quartz, smoky quartz and citrine are also popular.
  15. Emeralds were mined by the Egyptians as early as 3500 BC.
  16. Jade is sometimes called ‘the stone of heaven’.
  17. A large, perfect, gem quality ruby is worth more than a similar sized diamond.
  18. In the Indian language of Sanskrit, the word for ruby isratnaraj, which means ‘king of precious stones’.
  19. coloured sapphires

    Fancy Sapphires – Available in a variety of colours.

    The most popular form of sapphire is blue, but you can get ‘fancy’ sapphires in other colours.

  20. Turquoise is only found in only a few places, the biggest region being the south western USA. Turquoise is associated with traditional Native American jewellery as well as modern jewellery.
  21. What is an organic gemstone? Organic means substances like pearls, coral and amber, all made by living organisms rather than created through natural geological processes.
  22. Throughout history, jewellery has often been about status. In ancient Rome, for example, only some high ranking people were allowed to wear rings.
  23. In the west, men wearing earrings were seen as effeminate in the 19th and most of the 20th centuries. Now, it’s perfectly acceptable.
  24. In some African cultures enormous earrings are a sign of masculinity, prowess, power and status.
  25. Wedding rings for men are a 20th century thing, a practice launched by the jewellery industry to increase sales and double their market reach.
  26. By the mid 1940s, 85% of north American weddings involved rings for both partners.
  27. In traditional Islam, the wearing of gold by men is a social taboo and women can only wear ear jewellery.
  28. The Christian bible is against the wearing of gold, namely in the writings of the apostles Paul and Peter. And in Revelations 17 “the great whore” – AKA a religious system the bible disapproved of – was seen as “decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand.” Luckily nobody takes much notice of such nonsense these days, or we wouldn’t have a business!
  29. Snail shell beads found in Africa date back 75,000 years, discovered in the ancient Blombos Cave.
  30. More beads, made from ostrich egg shell, have been found in Kenya’s Enkapune Ya Muto and date back more than 40,000 years.
  31. Our Cro-Magnon ancestors wore simple necklaces and bracelets made from bone, teeth, berries and stones threaded on string or animal sinew.
  32. Ancient carved bracelets made from mammoth tusk have been found in Russia.
  33. Copper jewellery started appearing about 7000 years ago. The Museum of Ancient History in Lower Austria found a female jeweller’s grave, dispelling the long-held assumption that in ancient times, jewellers were always male.
  34. Jewellery appeared in Ancient Egypt between 3000-5000 years ago. They loved gold best.
  35. An example of a Mesopotamian piece, decorated with gold.

    An example of a Mesopotamian piece, decorated with gold.

    Mesopotamia tombs at the Royal Cemetery of Ur, dating back to 2900–2300 BC, were stuffed with gorgeous  gold, silver and semi-precious stone-studded jewellery including amazing lapis lazuli and gold crowns, collars and pins.

  36. In ancient Assyria, men and women wore absolutely huge amounts of jewellery including amulets, ankle bracelets and massive multi-strand necklaces.
  37. The Indians have been making fine jewellery for more than 5000 years, an obsession kicked off by the Indus Valley Civilization.
  38. People started making jewellery in China around the same time, but it didn’t become widespread until Buddhism started to gain popularity about 2000 years ago.
  39. The ancient Chinese loved silver much more than gold, using the metal to craft beautiful pieces studded with blue kingfisher feathers and various blue gemstones. But their main obsession was with jade, which they loved for its alleged human qualities: hardness, durability and beauty
  40. In the early 1980s The Smiths popularised jewellery for men, reviving a hippy trend from the 1960s. In a then-sexist Britain, it was a bit of a shock to see men wearing ropes of beaded and jewelled necklaces, and even wielding bunches of beautiful flowers in nightclubs and pubs. Well done, Morrissey!

40 Amazing Facts About Jewellery

Don’t Get Fooled: 15 Things to Know Before Buying Bullion

Don’t Get Fooled: 15 Things to Know Before Buying Bullion

  

You’ve been thinking about investing in precious metals. It’s been on your radar for a while, but you’re not sure how to go about it. Fear not. I’ve got 15 tips to share with you. These are things you should be aware of before you attempt to buy bullion. Bullion was once an investment that was limited to the wealthiest individuals. Now it’s something anyone can hold. And with the 24/7 availability of secure on-line markets, it has never been easier to buy or sell. Follow these tips, and soon you’ll be investing like a pro.

1. Gold is gold

There’s nothing like gold. It’s a foundational investment, not a piece of paper like a stock or bond that is a promise of future payment. Rather, it’s something you can hold in your hands that have intrinsic value. Banks may go bankrupt, governments may fall, but gold will hold its value. People were trading in gold millennia ago, and they will be trading in precious metals thousands of years into the future. Your great-grandchildren can inherit your gold coins, and rest assured that the metal will not have lost value. At the very least, the coins will be worth what you paid for them in terms of their purchasing power.

2. Let the buyer beware

Ignorance is not bliss when it comes to trading in gold, silver, platinum, or palladium. These are expensive investments to acquire, and unfortunately, there are people out there who will try to cheat you. Whenever I hear some blowhard at Starbucks touting the virtues of gold coins to a starry-eyed mark, I cringe. Education and knowledge are key to spotting a scam, and to avoiding the wrong kind of investment. If you don’t have the patience to learn the basics, do yourself a favor. Don’t bother.

3. Know yourself

Are you a safe-haven type investor? Do you want a hedge against inflation? These are both good reasons to buy bullion, and for many people, investment in gold can be part of a well-balanced portfolio. How you answer these questions should steer you to the right bullion investment. Seeking that safe-haven? You don’t want a leveraged or financed investment; you could end up losing more money than you were loaned. ETFs would also be inappropriate. Gold certificates are paper, and the whole point of getting into bullion for many is to avoid paper money. Gold shares are a speculative, high-risk investment. Own the gold outright. It’s the most conservative investment. Again, its purchasing power will remain stable over many years.

4. Know bullion

Bullion is sold as ingots or coins, by weight, and these ingots and coins come in different sizes. Gold bars start at the one-ounce size and go up from there in weight and price. The most popular one-ounce coins to hold (and also the easiest to liquidate) are the South African Krugerrandthe Canadian Maple Leaf, and the U.S. Gold Eagle. Coins with the numismatic value may command a premium. Jewelry may also be worth more than its weight in gold, but that’s unlikely unless Louis Comfort Tiffany produced it. But if you love it, and you want to wear your gold coin as a necklace, do so.

5. Consider your portfolio

Starting out, I would recommend that you invest no more than between ten and fifteen percent of your overall portfolio. Although gold is liquid, because its price can bounce around, and silver even more so, bullion is better to hold onto long term. Leave the day trading in precious metals to the professionals.

6. Understand the investment

Realize that bullion is an investment that won’t generate any income while you hold it; it’s not going to pay dividends or earn interest. But for the same reason, it also won’t subject you to any income taxes. Capital gains (or losses) only come into play when you sell. Before you do so, think about whether any potential gain will push you into the next higher tax bracket.

7. How to buy rare coins

Find a dealer you can trust. That person may be running the local coin store down the street, but do your due diligence. If you’re buying numismatic, historical, or collector coins—they have premium value for collectors over and above the melt value. Price depends on rarity and condition. You need someone who will give you a fair price. A guarantee to buy back the coin at the price you paid for it is a good sign. Check that the coin dealer adheres to the highest standards and holds a membership in the Professional Numismatists Guild. If you choose to invest in rare coins, as a novice, it might be wise to pick one coin to become an authority on. Be aware that the learning curve to become an expert is steep, but many people find coin-collecting fascinating and lucrative.

8. Understand how bullion is priced

The spot price is the current market price of gold that can be immediately delivered. The difference between the buying price and the selling price is the spread. The dealer pays a bid price to acquire bullion or bullion coins. The asking price is what you will pay. It is calculated based on the metal’s spot value, with an added-on premium. Because gold prices fluctuate constantly, gold bullion prices will as well.

9. How to buy bullion and coins without numismatic value

You want a low-cost purchase, so you need to find an individual or company who charges a small commission on the spot price. To vet any company you are considering doing business with, the Federal Trade Commission advises to check with the appropriate consumer protection agency—usually that’s going to be the Better Business Bureau—as well as the state’s attorney general’s office. Usually, the best price will come from an online company, one that does a high volume business; it keeps costs down. Silver Monthlyrecently profiled The Top 10 Online Bullion Dealers. Other considerations to weigh are how long the company has been in business and their communication style. When I have questions, I want answers, and I bet you do too.

10. Timing bullion purchases

Buy low, sell high. Trying to time the market can be a futile exercise. You might be better off smoothing out any price bumps by investing the same sum once a month or once a quarter, perhaps a thousand at a time. This technique is called dollar-cost averaging. Some precious metals experts pooh-pooh the strategy, saying wouldn’t you want to be all in when there’s a bull market raging, knowing that gold and silver are long term investments? It’s your call, and your decision, and it’s going to depend upon how risk adverse you are.

11. Know the lingo

If you were buying diamonds, cut, weight, and clarity matter. Gold is graded, coins are rated, and you need to know what you are buying, whether it’s a pure ingot or a centuries-old Spanish piece of eight salvaged from a shipwreck. Stick with top-of-the-line, nothing graded downward, because that precious metal will hold its value best.

12. Counterfeit bullion

Counterfeit gold and silver ingots, as well as gold coins, are currently being sold out of China. Some are high-quality, and to the inexpert eye, difficult to distinguish from the originals. By working with a dealer with a sterling reputation, one who’s been in business for years, this won’t be something for you to worry about. It’s definitely worth asking the question of someone you’re planning on doing business with: what kinds of tests do you do and what protocols do you have in place to ensure you’re not inadvertently selling fakes?

13. Storage

Gold is portable, and keeping it at home is possible. A personal safe provides peace of mind. If the bullion or coins are very valuable, your insurance provider may insist on a rider. Other than that insurance agent, no one should know that you keep gold in your home. Don’t let your home become a burglary target by showing off your darling Chinese panda coins to everyone who walks in the door. A safe-deposit box at the bank is another secure way to store the cache. Some gold investors recommend an independent depository as an even safer way to store bullion. If you have a lot invested in bullion, this is the way to go.

14. Avoid the deal of the day

High-pressure sales tactics abound among the unscrupulous. If a deal is only good today, no matter how good it appears, walk away. It’s likely that it’s only going to be a good deal for the seller. Remember, as with any long-term investment, you should take your time deciding what is right for you.

15. The future of gold

Gold is finite. There is a limit to what can be dug out of the earth, and thus I can predict future scarcity with certainty. Much of the gold that’s sold now is recycled, but not all of it can be. It’s Econ101: as any commodity becomes scarce, its price tends to rise. That bodes well for the future, and your investment. I hope this gives you enough information to enable you to begin investing in bullion, in a way that takes your investment goals and your own situation into consideration.

Don’t Get Fooled: 15 Things to Know Before Buying Bullion

A Beginner’s Guide to Investing in Precious Metals

A Beginner’s Guide to Investing in Precious Metals

Beginners Guide

If you are interested in investing and financial planning, you are probably familiar with buying precious metals like gold and silver. Many financial advisors recommend diversifying your portfolio, which is essentially spreading your investments across an array of stocks and commodities to help minimize risk; if one investment drops in value, it can be beneficial to have additional investments that may not be as greatly affected by the market.

Precious metals provide not only a hard asset, but an ideal safe haven investment that has historically withstood economic uncertainty. The utility and rarity of these metals has been treasured for centuries as a monetary device and a symbol of wealth.

But even with the knowledge that investing in precious metals may be the right option for you, learning where to begin can be overwhelming. This guide is designed to give you a basic overview of investing in precious metals. Once you discover your areas of interest, you can do some additional research or bring questions to your financial advisor for a more thorough understanding of the market.

Types of Metals

Precious metals are naturally occurring metallic elements that are relatively rare to find, which has contributed to their value throughout history. It is common to find metals like gold and silver in jewelry, but precious metals also have a wide variety of industrial uses as well. The supply and demand of these metals across various industries is what causes spot prices—the current price of a metal—to stay in flux while markets are open.

The most common precious metals used for investing include:

  • Gold: Treasured for its durability, malleability, and conductivity, gold is primarily used as a form of currency and in the making of jewelry. It has additional uses in electronics and dentistry.
  • Silver: With more industrial uses than gold, silver price fluctuations are often more volatile; but its affordability makes it an ideal choice for beginner investors. Silver is used for electrical appliances, medicinal applications, batteries, circuits, and a variety of other purposes.
  • Platinum: Due to its rarity, far less platinum is pulled from the ground than gold. The most common use of platinum outside of ornamental purposes is in the manufacture of automotive catalytic converters. It is also used in the computer industry and for chemical refining.
  • Palladium: Similar to platinum, palladium is used to make engines and ceramic capacitors in chargeable electronics. It can also be alloyed with gold to make white gold, which is mostly used for jewelry.

Some investors also choose to buy copper, magnesium, zirconium, iron, and other metals that have a host of industrial uses.

Why Invest in Precious Metals?

With a paper money system in place, why should you invest in precious metals? While we cannot predict exactly what could happen to our economy in the future, we can take notes from history. Several forms of paper money—also called fiat currency—have collapsed in various cultures over the centuries. But gold, silver, and other metals have remained universally valuable commodities.

People often view metals as a safe haven investment. It is common to see an increase in demand during times of economic or political instability, as well as during times of war or other crises. Faltering real estate, stocks, and bonds may also drive people toward precious metals. If security is threatened, metals provide a valuable asset that you can keep in your own possession.

Another benefit of investing in precious metals is that they offer protection against inflation. You cannot create more metals than what already exists, so they cannot be inflated. Metals are also free of credit risk. Owning metals helps diversify your portfolio, which is often recommended for more investment security.

How to Invest in Precious Metals

The first step to any investment plan is identifying your goals. This helps you determine which types of investment options can help you achieve what you want. Whether your goals are short-term or long-term, there are several ways to begin investing in metals. But bear in mind that precious metals should only be a portion of your portfolio. A healthy mix of investments helps protect your finances from market volatility.

Some of the ways you can begin investing in precious metals include:

  • Exchange-traded fund (ETF): This is a basket of funds that tracks a commodity or index. It is a security on the investment, so you can profit as others buy metals. You can get an ETF for gold, silver, or platinum as a liquid means of purchasing metals.
  • Gold or silver stocks: This is an investment in the companies that mine metals, not the metals themselves. It provides an indirect way to invest in the market.
  • Physical metals: You can buy precious metal bullion in the form of coins, rounds, and bars. So long as you have a safe method of storage, this provides you with a tangible asset for wealth protection. This is a favorable option for people who wish to incrementally accumulate wealth over the years.
  • Precious metal IRA: This allows you to reap the benefits of owning metal, without the hassle of storing or transporting it. Rather, it is kept in a bank vault.

https://www.providentmetals.com/knowledge-center/precious-metals-resources/beginners-guide-investment.html

A Couple of Tips And Tricks For Investing In Precious Metals

What tips and tricks can those who are new to investing benefit from?

Gold is generally the most popular metal people and it can be bought in several different forms including gold bars, bullion, and coins. But whilst it is the most popular choice for investment, it is also the most volatile in terms of price, so it might not be the ideal choice for beginners to start off with.

Silver is another metal you can invest in. Because silver has many important applications in industry, it is rapidly becoming a popular investment choice and with the price of silver rising all the time, it is a good choice for beginners looking to add precious metals to their investment portfolio.

Platinum is another good choice for investment purposes, although it is much more expensive than gold and silver. However, like silver, it has a number of important uses, including dentistry, laboratory equipment, as well as jewelery, which means it is always in demand.

It is a good idea to spend time researching the different metals before you make a decision on which one you want to concentrate on and there are several ways in which you can invest in precious metals. You can buy the metal bullion, to be stored by you or kept in a secure location, or you can buy shares and stocks in the companies that mine or trade in the metal. The other alternative is to invest in the precious metals futures market, but this is a riskier strategy.

If you decide to invest in metal bars or coins, spend time learning more about the differences in purity and weight as these factors will affect the resale value of your metal bars and coins. Imperfections, overall condition and design of precious metal bars and coins makes a big difference to the buying and selling price, so it is very important that you know what you are dealing with.

Never go through all of your money into metals as their prices can fluctuate a great deal. Most experts recommend that precious metals should only account for 10% of an investment portfolio. However, they are amongst the safest things you can invest in as precious metals never lose their value in the event of economic turmoil, unlike stocks and shares.

Never make the mistake of thinking that precious metal jewelery is an investment in the same way metal bars and coins are. It is not. Jewelery is sold for a much higher price than the precious metal it is made from.

Once you are ready to invest in metals, traders, brokers and dealers can offer advice and help you make the right choices.

Adam Friedman [http://www.lazyaffiliateguy.com/adam-friedman-on-investing/] offers Absolutely Free Online Marketing Training. Adam Friedman [http://www.lazyaffiliateguy.com/adam-friedman-on-investing/] has done Online trading with Precious metals for years..

Article Source: https://EzineArticles.com/expert/Adam_Friedman/588968

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24 Ways To Say Cool In the Summer Heat…

We’ve all been there—tossing and turning in bed, struggling because our sweat has us practically glued to the sheets. It. Is. Awful. There are few things worse than trying to catch some shut-eye (or even just relax!) in an incredibly hot, sticky room. But brutal summer temps are unavoidable for most of us at some point in the year. So how to cool down a room without AC? It’s possible, we swear! A few quick tips and trips, a bunch of which you’ve probably never heard, can mean the difference between a sleepless night in a borderline sauna and some blissful zzzs. So what are we going to cover? (Well, not ourselves, obviously.) Things like how to use the freezer to your advantage (it’s not what you think), getting low (to the ground, that is), and getting extra creative with grains. Confused? Just read on. It will all make sense.

Before we dive in, we realize the obvious solution for cool, calm, and REM-ful sleeping is an air conditioner: These modern gizmos can keep a bedroom at the optimum sleep temperature (roughly between 60 and 70 degrees Fahrenheit), plus provide some nice white noise to boot. But even small window units use up tons of energy and jack up monthly electric bills. So what’s an environmentally responsible, budget-conscious sleeper to do?

Living through a hot summer without AC seems impossible but, hey, our grandparents did it all the time! Turns out, they learned a few things in the process. Here are all those tried-and-true DIY strategies for how to stay cool in summer.

1. Choose cotton.

Save the ooh-la-la satin, silk, or polyester sheets for cooler nights. Light-colored bed linens made of lightweight cotton (Egyptian or otherwise) are breathable and excellent for promoting ventilation and airflow in the bedroom.

2. Feel the freezer burn.

Stick sheets in the fridge or freezer for a few minutes before bed. We recommend placing them in a plastic bag first (unless eu de frozen pizza is your fave aromatherapy scent). Granted, this won’t keep you cool all night, but it will provide a brief respite from heat and humidity.

3. Get cold comfort.

Here’s a four-seasons tip for keeping utilities charges down: Buy a hot water bottle. In winter, fill it with boiling water for toasty toes without cranking the thermostat. During summer, stick it in the freezer to create a bed-friendly ice pack.

4. Be creative.

If you thought fans are just for blowing hot air around, think again! Point box fans out the windows so they push hot air out, and adjust ceiling fan settings so the blades run counter-clockwise, pulling hot air up and out instead of just twirling it around the room.

5. Sleep like an Egyptian.

If there seem to be a lot of Egyptian references in this list, it’s because those Nile-dwellers knew how to do it right. The so-called “Egyptian method” involves dampening a sheet or towel in cool water and using it as a blanket. We recommend laying the damp sheets on top of a dry towel to avoid soaking the mattress.

6. Get loose.

Less is definitely more when it comes to summertime jammies. Pick a loose, soft cotton shirt and shorts or underwear. Going full nudie during a heat wave is (unsurprisingly) controversial. Some people believe it helps keep them cool, while others claim going au natural means sweat stays on the body instead of being wicked away by fabric. We’re going to chalk this one up to personal preference.

7. Go old-school.

Remember when refrigerators were iceboxes that contained actual blocks of ice? Us neither. This stay-cool trick is straight out of the icebox era, though. Make a DIY air conditioner by positioning a shallow pan or bowl (a roasting pan works nicely) full of ice in front of a fan. The breeze will pick up cold water from the ice’s surface as it melts, creating a cooling mist.

8. Create a cross-breeze.

In this case, hanging out in the cross-hairs is a good idea. Position a fan across from a window, so the wind from outside and the fan combine in a cooling cross-breeze. Feeling fancy? Go buck-wild and set up multiple fans throughout the room to make the airflow even more boisterous.

9. Pamper your pulses.

Need to cool down, stat? To chill out super-fast, apply ice packs or cold compresses to pulse points at the wrists, neck, elbows, groin, ankles, and behind the knees.

10. Get tech-y.

We can’t vouch for its effectiveness, but the chillow—a high-tech pad that stays cool through water circulation—seems like a genius idea.

11. Be a lone wolf.

Sorry lovebugs, but sleeping alone is way better than spooning for staying cool. Cuddling with a partner increases body heat, making the bed a sticky, sweaty pit of despair instead of a cool, calm oasis.

12. Release your inner Tarzan.

Feeling ambitious (or just really, really hot)? Rig up a hammock or set up a simple cot. Both types of beds are suspended on all sides, which increases airflow.

13. Fill up the tank.

Get a leg up on hydration by drinking a glass of water before bed. Tossing and turning and sweating at night can result in dehydration, so get some H20 in the tank beforehand. (Pro tip: Just eight ounces will do the trick, unless you’re really into those 3 a.m. bathroom runs.)

14. Cool off.

A cold shower takes on a whole new meaning come summertime. Rinsing off under a stream of tepid H20 brings down the core body temperature and rinses off sweat (ick) so you can hit the hay feeling cool and clean.

15. Get low.

Hot air rises, so set up your bed, hammock, or cot as close to the ground as possible to beat the heat. In a one-story home, that means hauling the mattress down from a sleeping loft or high bed and putting it on the floor. If you live in a multi-floor house or apartment, sleep on the ground floor or in the basement instead of an upper story.

16. Turn off the lights.

This tip is pretty self-explanatory. Light bulbs (even environmentally-friendly CFLs) give off heat. Fortunately, summer means it stays light until eight or nine at night. Take advantage of natural light as much as possible, and keep rooms cool after dark by using lights minimally or not at all (romantic candle-lit dinner, anyone?).

17. Hang out.

Cool down a whole room by hanging a wet sheet in front of an open window. The breeze blowing in will quickly bring down the room’s temperature.

18. Stay away from the stove.

Summer is not the time to whip up a piping hot casserole or roast chicken. Instead, chow down on cool, room-temperature dishes (salads are clutch) to avoid generating any more heat in the house. If hot food is in order, fire up the grill instead of turning on the oven. And swap big meals for smaller, lighter dinners that are easier to metabolize. The body produces more heat after you chow down on a huge steak than a platter of fruits, veggies, and legumes.

19. Encourage cold feet.

Those ten little piggies are pretty sensitive to temperature because there are lots of pulse points in the feet and ankles. Cool down the whole body by dunking (clean!) feet in cold water before hitting the hay. Better yet, keep a bucket of water near the bed and dip feet whenever you’re feeling hot throughout the night.

20. Unplug at night.

As in, literally disconnect electronics. Gadgets and other small appliances give off heat, even when turned off. Reduce total heat in the house (and save energy!) by keeping plugs out of sockets when the appliances are not in use.

21. Camp at home.

Got access to a safe outdoor space like a roof, courtyard, or backyard? Practice those camping skills (and stay cooler) by pitching a tent and sleeping al fresco.

22. Hog the bed.

Sleeping alone (see No. 11 above) has its perks, including plenty of space to stretch out. Snoozing in spread eagle position (i.e. with arms and legs not touching each other) is best for reducing body heat and letting air circulate around the body. Hit the hay in this sleep position to keep limbs from getting crazy sweaty.

23. Go rustic.

When temperatures soar, trade in that extra-comfy mattress for a minimalist straw or bamboo mat. These all-natural sleeping surfaces are less comfortable, but they don’t retain heat like a puffy, cloth-covered mattress.

24. Get creative with grains.

Rice and buckwheat aren’t just for eating! These cupboard staples can also keep you cool on hot nights. Stock up on buckwheat pillows, which don’t absorb heat like cotton and down. And for a cold compress on really hot nights, fill a sock with rice, tie it off, and stick it in the freezer for an hour or so. The compress will stay chilly for up to 30 minutes, definitely enough time to nod off.

Originally published June 2013. Updated May 2017.

Precious Metals….did you know??????

Precious metals

Gold, silver, and platinum have historically been valued for their beauty and rarity. They are the precious metals . Platinum usually costs slightly more than gold, and both metals are about 80 times more costly than silver. Precious metal weights are given in Troy ounces (named for Troyes, France, known for its fairs during the Middle Ages) a unit approximately 10% larger than 1 oz (28.35 g).

The ancients considered gold and silver to be of noble birth compared to the more abundant metals. Chemists have retained the term noble to indicate the resistance these metals have to corrosion , and their natural reluctance to combine with other elements.

Silver Investment Ideas – Treasure Coast Bullion Group
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The legends of King Midas and Jason’s search for the golden fleece hint at prehistoric mankind’s early fascination with precious metals. The proof comes in the gold and silver treasure found in ancient Egyptian tombs and even older Mesopotamian burial sites.

The course of recorded history also shows twists and turns influenced to a large degree by precious metals. It was Greek silver that gave Athens its Golden Age, Spanish gold and silver that powered the Roman Empire‘s expansion, and the desire for gold that motivated Columbus to sail west across the Atlantic. The exploration of Latin America was driven in large part by the search for gold, and the Jamestown settlers in North America had barely gotten their “land legs” before they began searching for gold. Small amounts of gold found in North Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama played a role in the 1838 decision to remove the Cherokee Indians to Oklahoma. The California gold rush of 1849 made California a state in 1850, and California gold fueled northern industry and backed up union currency, two major factors in the outcome of the Civil War.

Looking to Invest in Silver? – Free Silver Investment Guide
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Since ancient times, gold has been associated with the Sun . Its name is believed to be derived from a Sanskrit word meaning “to shine,” and its chemical symbol (Au) comes from aurum, Latin for “glowing dawn.” Pure gold has an attractive, deep yellow color and a specific gravity of 19.3. Gold is soft enough to scratch with a fingernail, and the most malleable of metals. A block of gold about the size of a sugar cube can be beaten into a translucent film some 27 ft (8 m) on a side. Gold’s purity is expressed either as fineness (parts per 1,000) or in karats (parts per 24). An alloy containing 50% gold is 500 fine or 12 karat gold. Gold resists corrosion by air and most chemicals but can be dissolved in a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids, a solution called aqua regia because it dissolves the “king of metals”.

Gold is so rare that one ton of average rock contains only about eight pennies worth of gold. Gold ore occurs where geologic processes have concentrated gold to at least 250 times the value found in average rock. At that concentration, there is still one million times more rock than gold and the gold is rarely seen. Ore with visible gold is fabulously rich.

Gold most commonly occurs as a pure metal called native gold or as a natural alloy with silver called electrum. Gold and silver combined with tellurium are of local importance. Gold and silver tellurides are found, for example, in the mountains around the old mining boom-town of Telluride, Colorado. Gold is found in a wide variety of geologic settings, but placer gold and gold veins are the most economically important.

Placer gold is derived from gold-bearing rock from which the metal has been freed by weathering . Gravity and running water then combine to separate the dense grains of gold from the much lighter rock fragments. Rich concentrations of gold can develop above deeply weathered gold veins as the lighter rock is washed away. The “Welcome Stranger” from the gold fields of Victoria, Australia , is a spectacular 158–16 (71.5-kg) example of this type of occurrence.

Gold washed into mountain streams also forms placer deposits where the stream’s velocity diminishes enough to deposit gold. Stream placers form behind boulders and other obstructions in the streambed, and where a tributary stream merges with a more slowly moving river. Placer gold is also found in gravel bars where it is deposited along with much larger rocky fragments.

The discovery of placer gold set off the California gold rush of 1849 and the rush to the Klondike in 1897. The largest river placers known are in Siberia, Russia. Gold-rich sands there are removed with jets of water, a process known as hydraulic mining. A fascinating byproduct of Russia’s hydraulic mining is the unearthing of thousands of woolly mammoths, many with flesh intact, locked since the Ice Age in frozen tundra gravel.

Stream placer deposits have their giant ancient counterparts in paleoplacers, and the Witwatersrand district in South Africa outproduces all others combined. Gold was reported from the Witwatersrand (White Waters Ridge) as early as 1834, but it was not until 1886 that the main deposit was discovered. From that time until today, it has occupied the paramount position in gold mining history. Witwatersrand gold was deposited between 2.9 and 2.6 billion years ago in six major fields, each produced by an ancient river system.

Placer and paleoplacers are actually secondary gold deposits, their gold having been derived from older deposits in the mountains above. The California 49ers looked upstream hoping to find the mother lode, and that’s exactly what they called the system of gold veins they discovered.

Vein gold is deposited by hot subterranean water known as a hydrothermal fluid. Hydrothermal fluids circulate through rock to leach small amounts of gold from large volumes of rock and then deposit it in fractures to form veins. Major U.S. gold vein deposits have been discovered at Lead in the Black Hills of South Dakota and at Cripple Creek on the slopes of Pike’s Peak, Colorado. Important vein deposits are also found in Canada and Australia. All these important deposits were located following the discovery of placer gold in nearby streams.

Gold’s virtual indestructibility means that almost all gold ever mined could still be in use today. Today, gold is being mined in ever-increasing amounts from increasingly lower-grade deposits. It is estimated that 70% of all gold recovered has been mined in this century. Each year nearly 2,000 tons are added to the total. Nevada currently leads the nation in gold production, and the Republic of South Africa is the world’s leading gold-producing nation.

Gold has traditionally been used for coinage, bullion, jewelry, and other decorative uses. Gold’s chemical inertness means that gold jewelry is hypoallergenic and remains tarnish-free indefinitely.

Silver is a brilliant white metal and the best metal in terms of thermal and electrical conductivity. Its chemical symbol, Ag, is derived from its Latin name, argentum, meaning “shining white.” Silver is not nearly as precious, dense, or noble as gold or platinum. The ease with which silverware tarnishes is an example of its chemical reactivity. Although native silver is found in nature, it most commonly occurs as compounds with other elements, especially sulfur.

Hydrothermal veins constitute the most important source of silver. The Comstock Lode, a silver bonanza 15 mi (24 km) southeast of Reno, Nevada, is a well-known example. Hydrothermal silver veins are formed in the same manner as gold veins, and the two metals commonly occur together. Silver, however, being more reactive than gold, can be leached from surface rocks and carried downward in solution. This process, called supergene enrichment, can concentrate silver into exceedingly rich deposits at depth.

Mexico has traditionally been the world’s leading silver producing country, but the United States, Canada, and Peru each contribute significant amounts. Although silver has historically been considered a precious metal, industrial uses now predominate. Significant quantities are still used in jewelry, silver ware, and coinage; but even larger amounts are consumed by the photographic and electronics industries.

Platinum, like silver, is a silver-white metal. Its chemical symbol is Pt and its name comes from the Spanish world for silver (plata ), with which it was originally confused. Its specific gravity of 21.45 exceeds that of gold, and, like gold, it is found in pure metallic chunks in stream placers. The average crustal abundance of platinum is comparable to that of gold. The melting point of platinum is 3,219°F (1,769°C), unusually high for a metal, and platinum is chemically inert even at high temperature . In addition, platinum is a catalyst for chemical reactions that produce a wide range of important commodities.

Platinum commonly occurs with five similar metals known as the platinum group metals. The group includes osmium, iridium, rhodium, palladium, and ruthenium. All were discovered in the residue left when platinum ore was dissolved in aqua regia. All are rare, expensive, and classified chemically as noble metals.

Platinum is found as native metal, in natural alloys, and in compounds with sulfur and arsenic. Platinum ore deposits are rare, highly scattered, and one deposit dominates all others much as South Africa’s Witwatersrand dominates world gold production. That platinum deposit is also in the Republic of South Africa.

Placer platinum was discovered in South Africa in 1924 and subsequently traced to a distinctively layered igneous rock known as the Bushveld Complex. Although the complex is enormous, the bulk of the platinum is found in a thin layer scarcely more than three feet thick. Nearly half of the world’s historic production of platinum has come from this remarkable layer.

The Stillwater complex in the Beartooth mountains of southwestern Montana also contains a layer rich in platinum group metals. Palladium is the layer’s dominant metal, but platinum is also found. The layer was discovered during the 1970s, and production commenced in 1987.

Platinum is used mostly in catalytic converters for vehicular pollution control. Low-voltage electrical contracts form the second most common use for platinum, followed closely by dental and medical applications, including dental crowns, and a variety of pins and plates used internally to secure human bones. Platinum is also used as a catalyst in the manufacture of explosives, fertilizer, gasoline, insecticides, paint, plastics, and pharmaceuticals. Platinum crucibles are used to melt high-quality optical glass and to grow crystals for computer chips and lasers. Hot glass fibers for insulation and nylon fibers for textiles are extruded through platinum sieves.

Because of their rarity and unique properties, the demand for gold and platinum are expected to continue to increase. Silver is more closely tied to industry, and the demand for silver is expected to rise and fall with economic conditions.

 

http://www.encyclopedia.com/earth-and-environment/minerals-mining-and-metallurgy/metallurgy-and-mining-terms-and-concepts-47