ATOLE

Atole or Spanish About this sounda’tole , from Nahuatl ātōlli [aːˈtoːlːi]), also known as atol and atol de elote, is a traditional hot corn- and masa-based beverage of Mesoamerican origin. Chocolate atole is known as champurrado or atole. It is typically accompanied with tamales, and very popular during the Christmas holiday season (las Posadas)

In Mexico[edit]

In Mexico, the drink typically includes masa (corn hominy flour), water, piloncillo (unrefined cane sugar), cinnamon, vanilla, and optional chocolate or fruit. The mixture is blended and heated before serving. Atole is made by toasting masa on a comal (griddle), then adding water that was boiled with cinnamon sticks. The resulting blends vary in texture, ranging from a porridge to a very thin, liquid consistency. Atole can also be prepared with riceflour, or oatmeal in place of masa. In northern Mexico, a variation is also made using pinole (sweetened toasted corn meal). Although atole is one of the traditional drinks of the Mexican holiday Day of the Dead, it is very common during breakfast and dinnertime at any time of year. It is usually sold as street food.

Atole served at the Atole Fair in Coacalco de BerriozábalState of Mexico

In Northern Mexico and South Texas, atole is a traditional comfort food. It is often eaten as a breakfast or an after dinner snack on cold days. In New Mexicoblue corn atole is finely ground cornmeal toasted for cooking, consumed as a grainy porridge-style drink served warm, usually sweetened with sugar and/or thinned with milk. It is usually served at breakfast like cream of wheat or oatmeal. Elders are said to have drunk atole because it gave them energy and if a mother is nursing it gives her more milk.[1] Salvadoran varieties include atol shuco (“dirty” atol, a reference to its darker color), particularly popular in the Cabañas region.[2] The Nicaraguanhomologue is pinolillo. In some parts of Honduras, fresh corn is ground and the expressed liquid is used as the base (instead of masa

). 1235  N LOOP 336 WEST CONROE TX 77301

Dioptase

Image result for Dioptase

Dioptase is an intense emerald-green to bluish-green copper cyclosilicate mineral. It is transparent to translucent. Its luster is vitreous to sub-adamantine. Its formula is CuSiO3·H2O (also reported as CuSiO2(OH)2). It has a hardness of 5, the same as tooth enamel. Its specific gravity is 3.28–3.35, and it has two perfect and one very good cleavage directions. Additionally, dioptase is very fragile and specimens must be handled with great care. It is a trigonal mineral, forming 6-sided crystals that are terminated by rhombohedra.

History

Dioptase was used to highlight the edges of the eyes on the three Pre-Pottery Neolithic B lime plaster statues discovered at ‘Ain Ghazal known as Micah, Heifa and Noah. These sculptures date back to about 7200 BC.

Late in the 18th century, copper miners at the Altyn-Tyube (Altyn-Tube) mine, Karagandy ProvinceKazakhstan thought they found the emerald deposit of their dreams. They found fantastic cavities in quartz veins in a limestone, filled with thousands of lustrous emerald-green transparent crystals. The crystals were dispatched to MoscowRussia for analysis. However the mineral’s inferior hardness of 5 compared with emerald’s greater hardness of 8 easily distinguished it. Later Fr. René Just Haüy (the famed French mineralogist) in 1797 determined that the enigmatic Altyn-Tyube mineral was new to science and named it dioptase (Greekdia, “through” and optos, “visible”), alluding to the mineral’s two cleavage directions that are visible inside unbroken crystals

Occurrence

Dioptase is an uncommon mineral found mostly in desert regions where it forms as a secondary mineral in the oxidized zone of copper sulfide mineral deposits. However, the process of its formation is not simple, the oxidationof copper sulfides should be insufficient to crystallize dioptase as silica is normally minutely soluble in water except at highly alkaline pH. The oxidation of sulfides will generate highly acidic fluids rich in sulfuric acid that should suppress silica solubility. However, in dry climates and with enough time, especially in areas of a mineral deposit where acids are buffered by carbonate, minute quantities of silica may react with dissolved copper forming dioptase and chrysocolla.

The Altyn Tube mine in Kazakhstan still provides handsome specimens; a brownish quartzite host distinguishes its specimens from other localities. The finest specimens of all were found at the Tsumeb Mine in TsumebNamibia. Tsumeb dioptase is mineral and often highly sought after by collectors. Dioptase is also found in the deserts of the southwestern US. A notable occurrence is the old Mammoth-Saint Anthony Mine nearMammoth, Arizona where small crystals that make fine micromount specimens are found. In addition, many small, mineral colored crystals of dioptase have come from the Christmas Mine near Hayden, Arizona. Another classic locality for fine specimens is Renéville, Congo-Brazzaville. Finally, an interesting occurrence is the Malpaso Quarry in and near Agua de Oro Argentina. Here tiny bluish-green dioptase is found on and in quartz. It appears at this occurrence, dioptase is primary and has crystallized with quartz, native copper, and malachite.

Use

Dioptase is popular with mineral collectors and it is occasionally cut into small emerald-like gems. Dioptase and chrysocolla are the only relatively common copper silicate minerals. A dioptase gemstone should never be exposed to ultrasonic cleaning or the fragile gem will shatter. As a ground pigment, dioptase can be used in painting.

The most famous (and expensive) dioptase mineral locality is at Tsumeb, Namibia.

SOURSOP

 

Soursop
Soursop, Annona muricata.jpg
A spiky green fruit growing on a tree
Soursop fruit on its tree
Scientific classificatione
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Magnoliids
Order: Magnoliales
Family: Annonaceae
Genus: Annona
Species: A. muricata
Binomial name
Annona muricata
L.
Synonyms
Annona macrocarpa Wercklé
Annona crassiflora Mart.[1]
Guanabanus muricatus M.Gómez
Guanabanus muricatus (L.) M.Gómez[2]
Annona bonplandiana Kunth
Annona cearensis Barb. Rodr.
Annona muricata Vell.[3]

A. muricata flower

Soursop fruit on a tree

Soursop (also graviolacustard apple, and in Latin Americaguanábana) is the fruit of Annona muricata, a broadleaf, flowering, evergreen tree.[4][5] The exact origin is unknown; it is native to the tropical regions of the Americasand is widely propagated.[6] It is in the same genus, Annona, as cherimoya and is in the Annonaceae family.

The soursop is adapted to areas of high humidity and relatively warm winters; temperatures below 5 °C (41 °F) will cause damage to leaves and small branches, and temperatures below 3 °C (37 °F) can be fatal. The fruit becomes dry and is no longer good for concentrate.

With aroma similar to pineapple,[5] the flavor of the fruit has been described as a combination of strawberries and apple, and sour citrus flavor notes, contrasting with an underlying creamy texture reminiscent of coconut or banana.

Soursop is widely promoted (sometimes as “graviola”) as an alternative cancer treatment, but there is no medical evidence it is effective for treating cancer or any disease.

The flesh of the fruit consists of an edible, white pulp, some fiber, and a core of indigestible black seeds. The pulp is also used to make fruit nectar, smoothies, fruit juice drinks, as well as candies, sorbets, and ice cream flavorings.[4][5]

Due to the fruit’s widespread cultivation and popularity in parts of Latin America, the Caribbean, Africa, Southeast Asia and the Pacific, soursop and its derivative products are consumed across the world, also via branded food and beverage products available in many countries, including Brazil, Mexico, Canada, the United States, the UK, Ireland and Continental Europe, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore and Vietnam.

In Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, and Harar (Ethiopia), it is a common fruit, often used for dessert as the only ingredient, or as an agua fresca beverage; in Colombia and Venezuela, it is a fruit for juices, mixed with milk. In Cuba, a thick smoothie made of soursop pulp, milk and cane sugar goes by the name of champola. Ice cream and fruit bars made of soursop are common.[4][5] The seeds are normally left in the preparation, and removed while consuming, unless a blender is used for processing.

In Indonesiadodol sirsak, a sweetmeat, is made by boiling soursop pulp in water and adding sugar until the mixture hardens. Soursop is also a common ingredient for making fresh fruit juices that are sold by street food vendors. In the Philippines, it is called guyabano, derived from the Spanish guanábana, and is eaten ripe, or used to make juices, smoothies, or ice cream. Sometimes, they use the leaf in tenderizing meat. In Vietnam, this fruit is called mãng cầu Xiêm (Siamese Soursop) in the south, or mãng cầu (Soursop) in the north, and is used to make smoothies, or eaten as is. In Cambodia, this fruit is called tearb barung, literally “western custard-apple fruit.” In Malaysia, it is known in Malayas durian belanda and in East Malaysia, specifically among the Dusun people of Sabah, it is locally known as lampun. Popularly, it is eaten raw when it ripens, or used as one of the ingredients in Ais Kacang or Ais Batu Campur. Usually the fruits are taken from the tree when they mature and left to ripen in a dark corner, whereafter they will be eaten when they are fully ripe. It has a white flower with a very pleasing scent, especially in the morning. While for people in Brunei Darussalam this fruit is popularly known as “Durian Salat”, widely available and easily planted.

Fun facts about Canadian currency

Fun facts about Canadian currency

Circulation coins

Over 1 billion circulation coins are minted each year at our high-tech plant in Winnipeg. The effigy of our monarch has appeared on every Canadian coin produced by the Mint since 1908. Reverse designs, however, have changed considerably over the years to reflect the changing face of our diverse culture.

Mintage refers to the quantity of coins produced in a given period and can influence the value of a coin: lower mintages tend to be more in demand because they are scarcer. The physical specifications of circulation currency are essential to an understanding of a coin’s history, composition and design. This information allows collectors to determine a variety of characteristics, particularly mintage.

Coin recycling makes cents

The Royal Canadian Mint is committed to recycling coins. Every coin put back into circulation is one less to produce, which makes recycling an efficient, cost-effective and environmentally friendly way to provide change to the marketplace.

Turn small change into found money and help the environment!

Pennies, nickels, dimes. quarters, loonies, toonies. Coins add up fast, yet often lie around in jars and drawers. Instead of leaving your hidden treasure to collect dust, why not recycle your spare change? Every coin recycled is one that doesn’t have to be produced – which helps to preserve the environment and reduces emissions caused by smelting and mining.

You’ll be amazed at how quickly your spare change adds up to something big!

Fun facts

A 4-litre pickle jar can contain:

4,992 pennies = $49.92

8,400 dimes = $840.00

3,411 quarters = $852.75

A Mint employee brought in a 4-litre pickle jar of small change that had been accumulating over the years. It contained over $1,000!

More than 67% of recycled coins are pennies

Coin counting machines turn your coins into cash, faster!

Take a look in your pockets, your piggy bank and your purse – and Coin recycling makes cents

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Facts About Silver Jewelry And Gold Jewelry Metals/

Facts About Silver Jewelry And Gold Jewelry Metals/

What You Should Know – Silver and Gold Jewelry

About Silver Accessories and Karat Gold Jewelry

The two precious metals most often used in jewelry are alloys of silver and gold.

There are many different alloys used in modern jewelry making.

The type of jewelry you can wear is not just determined by your wallet –
but also by the way your body reacts to and tolerates exposure to metals.

Sterling silver tarnishes, especially in hot, humid weather. It contains 7.5% copper
by weight, which reacts with common air pollutants, darkening the surface of the metal.

This can prompt skin irritation if your skin is sensitive to (usually) nickel or Fats about (sometimes) copper.

If you have noticed that you have an itch that persists with drying and reddening of your
skin where your jewelry touches it, you are probably sensitive to the alloy in the metal.

Gold and silver are known to be non – reactive metals; but that does not mean
that everyone can wear any type of gold or silver jewelry without any problem.

Understanding more about metals can help you to choose
jewelry that is more comfortable and healthy for you to wear!

Higher karat gold alloys tend to be better tolerated than lower karat qualities because there is
less of the reactive metal in the alloy. Many people wear 18K or 22K gold jewelry for this reason.

Sterling silver is .925 pure, or 92.5% silver by weight, a very high percentage.
Most people don’t have any problems wearing sterling silver jewelry.

Modern silver alloys don’t contain nickel, the usual irritant in jewelry metals. Lower percentage
silver alloys like vintage “European” silver can irritate your skin more easily than sterling silver jewelry
if you have copper sensitive skin, because old European silver is .800 fine, or 80% silver / 20% copper.

Following is a listing of metals commonly used in jewelry making and an explanation of their properties.


Gold Facts – Alloys, Karats, and more!

Pure 24K gold is hypoallergenic. It doesn’t cause irritation to the body.

However, the metals mixed with gold to make it harder or
enhance the color of gold can cause adverse skin reactions.

Gold is very malleable, meaning it can be hammered
into very thin sheets – thin enough for light to pass through.

Gold is also very ductile – it can be pulled
through drawplates into wire much thinner than hair.

Pure gold is very soft. It is very easy to work with hand tools.To make it harder
it is mixed with other metals, creating an alloy. Gold alloy purity is expressed in karats.

Gold alloys are available in many colors. The color of the alloy is determined
by the percentage and type(s) of metal “mixed” with the pure gold.

Rose gold contains more copper; until recently
white gold was traditionally made with nickel.

Now white gold is also made with palladium, a platinum
family metal; green gold is made with an alloy of fine silver.
As an example, most green gold is 18 karat; 75% gold, 25% silver.

There are MANY other colors made with alloy combinations.

The percentage of gold used is directly related to the karat content of the alloy.

It does not matter what type of metal is “mixed” with the gold, just how much.

The chart (below) shows how much gold is in your jewelry.


1k Gold = 4.17% Gold and 95.83% alloy

2k Gold = 8.33% Gold and 91.67% alloy

3k Gold = 12.5% Gold and 87.5% alloy

4k Gold = 16.67% Gold and 83.33% alloy

5k Gold = 20.83% Gold and 79.17% alloy

6k Gold = 25% Gold and 75% alloy

7k Gold = 29.17% Gold and 70.83% alloy

8k Gold = 33.3% Gold and 66.67% alloy

9k Gold = 37.5% Gold and 62.5% alloy

10k Gold = 41.67% Gold and 58.33% alloy

11k Gold = 45.83% Gold and 54.17% alloy

12k Gold = 50% Gold and 50% alloy

13k Gold = 54.17% Gold and 45.83% alloy

14k Gold = 58.33% Gold and 41.67% alloy

15k Gold = 62.5% Gold and 37.5% alloy

16k Gold = 66.67% Gold and 33.33% alloy

17k Gold = 70.83% Gold and 29.17% alloy

18k Gold = 75% Gold and 25% alloy

19k Gold = 79.1% Gold and 20.83% alloy

20k Gold = 83.33% Gold and 16.67% alloy

21k Gold = 87.5% Gold and 12.5% alloy

22k Gold = 91.67% Gold and 8.33% alloy

23k Gold = 95.83% Gold and 4.17% alloy

24k Gold = 100% Gold and 0% alloy


In this chart, “alloy” means the other metal. It can be
silver, copper, zinc, nickel, iron or almost any other metal.

For instance, 10 karat yellow gold is 41.67% pure gold and 58.33% “other metals”,
mostly copper, maybe some silver and most likely some nickel or zinc to add hardness.

In the United States gold must be at least 9K to be sold as karat gold.

Lower karat gold alloys have a  higher percentage of the other metals added to them.

They tend to react to the pollutants and other
impurities in the air faster than higher karat gold alloys.

This means that the high percentage of copper or other metal in the
lower karat alloy will tarnish (or oxidize), just like sterling silver items do.

This can occur especially in hot weather when the metals react to salt in perspiration.

If this happens to your sterling silver or lower karat gold jewelry, you may want to take it off
and wash the piece in hot water with a detergent like Dawn, Joy or whatever you prefer.

If your jewelry is really dirty, try scrubbing it carefully with a soft toothbrush.
Polish with a jewelry polishing cloth, if you have one. Rinse and dry before wearing.

If you have a problem with sterling silver, medium to
low karat gold will probably give you difficulties as well.

Medium to low karat yellow gold has a much higher percentage of copper in it than sterling silver.

Nickel allergies are the most common. Many people have problems wearing white gold –
the problem isn’t the gold. It’s actually nickel – the alloy – that causes skin reactions!

The new palladium white gold alloys are a bit more expensive, but are hypoallergenic.


Silver Jewelry Metal Facts

Sterling silver is generally used for jewelry, and that is what most people think of when they see silver.

Silver also comes in various quality grades, measured by 1/1000 parts per gram.

There are impurities that naturally occur in silver at the molecular level. These impurities
consist of other metals – usually copper, but traces of other metals can also be found.

These trace impurities are insignificant, and would be
too costly to remove – so .999 silver is considered pure.

The table (below) shows the types of silver alloys generally used in jewelry making.

Silver Alloys

.999 
fine silver

Contains .001 trace metals.

.9584
Britannia

95.84% silver + 4.16% copper.

.925
sterling

92.5% silver + 7.5% copper.

.900
coin

90% silver + 10% copper.

.830
European

83% silver + 17% copper.

.800
European

80% silver + 20% copper.

All the alloys shown are legally referred to as “silver”.

The only legal requirement is that they are quality stamped or marked for sale to the public.

Silver Facts

As with gold, silver in its fine state is a non – reactive metal – allergies are possible but VERY rare.

People who have problems wearing silver jewelry are usually
allergic to the copper in the alloyed metal, not the silver.

During the European Industrial Revolution, people found that their .800 silver was tarnishing
much faster than before – a reaction to the new pollutants in the air – from burning coal in the factories!

Fine, or pure, silver with no copper content does not tarnish easily. Think about the fine silver
coins brought up from wrecked ships – everything from the Atocha to sunken pirate ships.

They come up out of the ocean after hundreds of years bright and shiny as new.

Fine silver can get dirty, of course, but will not tarnish like sterling silver.

There is a new alloy called Argentium® Silver. It is sterling, but contains germanium in place of copper.

Argentium® doesn’t develop firescale as easily during soldering and doesn’t tarnish the way
traditional sterling silver does because the germanium doesn’t react as the copper does.


Plated and Filled

There are different grades and methods of bonding precious metals to
a less expensive base metal, as indicated in the chart below.

Finished, Washed, Colored

These terms refer to the thinnest gold, silver, platinum or rhodium coatings. 
There is no standard thickness.

Plated, Electroplated

These metals have a required minimum standard thickness – usually .15 – .25 mils

Gold, Platinum or Silver Filled metals

A layer of karat gold, platinum or silver is mechanically
bonded to a base metal, usually brass or steel.

Filled metals usually have a thickness over 100 times that of plated metals.

Gold filled may be  marked with the gold percentage by weight and the karat value.

If a piece of jewelry is marked 1/20 14K GF – 5% of the total weight is 14K gold.
However, this is not required by law. Most times the quality is stated on a hang tag.

There is no approved marking system in the US for filled metals.

 Vermeil Gold plated over silver

Silver is the “base” metal

Many jewelry items are made of either plated or filled metals.

This is done to keep the cost of these items as low as possible.

The whole piece can be plated or filled metal, as with a chain. In many cases, the clasp and
metal parts of an otherwise top quality gemstone bead necklace or bracelet can be plated or filled.

If it is taken care of and worn properly, such as over a sweater, a necklace with plated parts
can last for a very reasonable length of time, even years – but eventually the plated
metal parts will oxidize or the plating will wear through to the base metal.

Filled metals are much higher quality and a much longer useful lifespan.

They have one or more layers of precious metal bonded to a base with heat and pressure.

Filled materials are at least 1/20 precious metal by weight.

They are much longer lasting than ordinary plated objects.

Filled metal objects are not usually marked with a quality stamp, such as 12k GF or 14k GF.

For information on the care and cleaning of jewelry, please visit this article:Jewelry Care

Article written by Robert Edwards ©2015.
Robert is a jeweler and metalsmith, and is webmaster of http://www.jewelry24seven.com.

This article may be linked and used as content on blogs and websites conditionally … ALL content –
links, author, copyright – must not be changed in ANY way – it must appear exactly as the article appears above.

 

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Coin Collecting 101: What All New Collectors Need to Know

Coin Collecting 101: What All New Collectors Need to Know

This helpful beginners guide for coin collectors will give you the tools to collect coins with confidence. Many collectors launch into numismatics with enthusiasm only to be sold on the wrong coin or pay way too much. It is true that collector coins are just that, collector coins, and they can be sold for what people are willing to pay for them. However, having a better understanding of the market and knowing where to find low-premium coins will keep you ecstatic about your hobby for years. Like with any hobby, the better informed you are, the better collecting decisions you will make.

The first step in getting better acquainted with your hobby is to understand coin terms. When a coin salesman throws a bunch of fancy terms at you to describe a coin, it’s always nice to understand them as if he was talking about options on a new car. Be weary of representatives using high pressure tactics. This is a big red flag. There are certain situations where a company may only have a couple of an item in stock, but do not allow their inventory to sway your decision.

Basics of Coin Grading and the Importance of Quality

The topic of coin grading and in particular, the Sheldon Scale, is something all coin collectors need to understand. We cover this topic in a previous blog post where we breakdown the Sheldon Scale. Back in the 1940′s, Dr. William Sheldon began establishing a unique method of organizing his massive penny collection. Completed in 1949, his quality scale of 1-70 was quickly adopted by other collectors as “the best way to describe the quality of a coin”. Recognizing it’s efficiency, the American Numismatic Association (ANA) adopted the Sheldon Scale in 1977 with the major grading companies following shortly thereafter in the early 1980′s.

The single most important determining factor of value in a coin is it’s condition. The higher the grade, the more the coin is worth. Collectors have had and always will have a desire to own fine things. Knowing you have something of better quality than the majority of other collectors makes one feel good. Owning something that not everyone has a chance to own is why collectors collect. You may ask yourself why pay more for MS70 coins? Perfect 70 graded coins are highly desirable because of their flawlessness and rarity. Very few coins minted ever get submitted for grading and of those that do, a small percentage merit the flawless 70 grade. The natural minting, packaging and shipping processes leave way for small defects and scratches on coin surfaces. Any coin not in circulation will grade between 60-70.

It is extremely important to have an experienced advisor you trust to work with when collecting coins. This goes for new and veteran collectors. A good collectible coin advisor stays up to date with the market daily and has a better feeling for when great deals become available. At CoinAdvisor.com, we specialize in just that, offering each collector a person advisor to inform you of market updates, great deals and answer all of your collecting questions. To get in contact with one of our friendly advisors, fill out this contact form and we will be in touch same day.

Enjoy Discount Pricing on Your Collectible Coins

There is no worse feeling that finding out you paid way too much for a rare coin. This is another benefit of having an advisor you trust that proves themselves time and time again to you. There are many choices a collector has when buying collectible coins; online dealers, auctions, coin/currency expos and TV network infomercials. Without knocking any of these medias directly, you must realize that if the production costs to promote a coin are high, than so are the premium added to the coin. Some large companies that sell coins on TV pay millions and millions of dollars in media costs to air their coins and pay their hosts. This overhead has to be accounted for somewhere, unfortunately it trickles down to the cost of your purchase.

On the other hand, great buys can be found more regularly online and at coin expos because of the low overhead to market their products. Auctions are also becoming more popular however they takes days of close watching to get a good deal and you have little recourse if you don’t receive exactly what you bought.

Our online store offers the coin market a low-cost option to buy rare collectible coins. Compare our pricing with the major coin catalogs out there and you will see the savings is significant. Browse our online coin store here and save up to 20% and even more shopping your favorite collectible coins. Enjoy FREE shipping and handling as well on all orders. We hope this guide is helpful for newer coin collectors. Remember, the more informed you are, the better collecting decisions you will make.

 https://www.coinadvisor.com/blog/coin-collecting-101/

American Eagle Coin Program

American Eagle Coin Program

american eagle platinum, gold, and silver coins
In 1986, Liberty, as depicted by Augustus Saint-Gaudens, was selected as the design that would grace the obverse of the American Eagle Gold Coins. The Saint-Gaudens design first appeared on the United States’ $20, or double-eagle, gold piece in 1907, where it remained until 1933.

Like their gold counterparts, American Eagle Silver Coins have been produced and sold in both proof and bullion finishes since 1986. They have always featured a rendition of sculptor Adolph A. Weinman’s magnificent Walking Liberty design, originally prepared and executed for the half-dollar coin in 1916.

American Eagle Bullion Coins for Investors

Congressionally authorized American Eagle Bullion coins provide investors with a convenient and cost effective way to add a small amount of physical platinum, gold, or silver to their investment portfolios. The American Eagle Bullion program was launched in 1986 with the sale of gold and silver bullion coins. Platinum was added to the American Eagle Bullion family in 1997.

A bullion coin is a coin that is valued by its weight in a specific precious metal. Unlike commemorative or numismatic coins valued by limited mintage, rarity, condition and age, bullion coins are purchased by investors seeking a simple and tangible means to own and invest in the gold, silver, and platinum markets. American Eagle Gold Bullion Coins are available in four denominations: one ounce, one-half ounce, one-quarter ounce, and one-tenth ounce while the American Eagle Silver and Platinum Bullions Coins are only available in the one ounce size.

Watch the video below to see how the West Point Mint makes a gold bullion coin.

American Eagle Bullion Coins

How to Buy American Eagle Bullion Coins

Aside from the proof version, the United States Mint does not sell American Eagle Bullion coins directly to the public. Instead, the Mint distributes uncirculated Bullion coins through a network of wholesalers, brokerage companies, precious metal firms, coin dealers, and participating banks, a network known as Authorized Purchasers.

This method provides effective and efficient distribution, which maximizes the availability of the coins in retail markets as well as major investment markets. For more information about American Eagle Bullion Coins, call 1-800-USA-GOLD.

American Eagle Bullion coins are sold based on the current market price of platinum, gold, or silver plus a small premium to cover minting, distribution, and marketing costs. A portion of this premium is often recoverable upon resale. Prices between dealers will vary. Volume discounts often apply.

American Eagle Proof and Uncirculated Coins for Collectors

The United States Mint produces proof versions of the American Eagle Coins for Collectors. The American Eagle Proof program was introduced in 1986 with the sale of gold and silver proof coins. Platinum was added to the American Eagle Proof line-up in 1997.

The term “proof” refers to a specialized minting process that begins by manually feeding burnished coin blanks into presses fitted with special dies. Each coin is struck multiple times so the softly frosted, yet detailed images seem to float above a mirror-like field. After scrutiny by white gloved inspectors, each American Eagle Proof Coin is placed in a protective plastic capsule and mounted in a handsome satin-lined velvet presentation case.

An official Certificate of Authenticity accompanies each coin. American Eagle Proof Coins sell at a fixed price and can be purchased directly from the United States Mint.

American Eagle Proof Coins

American Eagle Uncirculated Coins

The United States Mint also offers collectible, uncirculated versions of the popular gold and silver American Eagle Coins. These coins are sold directly to the public, and all American Eagle Uncirculated Coins feature the same stunning designs found on their proof counterparts.

The term “uncirculated” refers to the specialized minting process used to create these coins. Although they are similar in appearance to American Eagle Bullion Coins, uncirculated quality coins are distinguished by the presence of a mint mark, indicating their production facility, and by the use of burnished coin blanks, which are hand-fed into specially adapted coining presses one at a time.

Each American Eagle Uncirculated Coin is carefully inspected before it is encapsulated in plastic. With its pristine finish now protected, each American Eagle Uncirculated Coin is placed in a protective outer box. A Certificate of Authenticity is included with each coin.

These magnificent coins sell at a fixed price and are available directly from the United States Mint. American Eagle Gold and Silver Uncirculated Coins are only minted and sold in the one ounce size.

Content last updated on July 17, 2017

 

 

https://www.usmint.gov/learn/coin-and-medal-programs/american-eagle

How to Choose Jewelry That Looks Good With Your Skin Tone

Jan 19, 2015 11:30:00 AM / by Denise Joyce

How to Choose Jewelry That Looks Good With Your SkintoneIf you’re looking for a piece of jewelry that will look the same on everyone who wears it, you’re going to have a very hard time finding one. There are many different reasons that jewelry looks different on different people, but one of the biggest factors is skin tone. Certain metals and gemstones look better against different skin tones. By understanding how different metals flatter different skin tones, you’ll be able to find more pieces of jewelry that you feel confident wearing.

Determining your skin tone

To determine your skin tone, it’s best to look at your skin in natural light. Try finding a spot where the veins are noticeable. For most people, their wrists are usually a good choice. If your veins appear blue or purple in color, you have a cool skin tone. If your veins appear green in color, you have a warm skin tone. If your veins appear blue in some areas and green in others, you have a neutral skin tone.

It’s important to remember that skin tone is not the same as skin color. It’s possible to have darker skin and a cool skin tone, and you can also have light skin and a warm skin tone. Skin tone is closely related to your ethnic background where as skin color has more to do with the environment.

Matching skin tone to metals

Once you’ve determined whether you have warm or cool undertones, it’s easy to find a metal color that will flatter your skin tone. People with cool skin tones look good in light or white metals such as white gold, platinum and silver. People with warm skin tones look good in yellow and rose gold, copper and brass jewelry. If you have a neutral skin tone, you’ll look good in both white metals and yellow metals.

Matching skin tone to gemstone colors

Matching metal colors to your skin tone help to make sure that your jewelry isn’t distracting, but the metal itself usually isn’t the focus point of a piece of jewelry. Gemstones that match your skin tone help to create a more cohesive look. Cool skin tones look good against bright colors such as red, blue, purple and green because they bring liveliness to cool skin. Earth tones such as orange, brown, yellow and turquoise are ideal for warm skin because the yellow undertone in the skin is earthy as well.

Does skin tone really matter?

When it comes to jewelry, there’s no concrete set of rules about which metals you can and cannot wear. If you have a cool undertone to your skin but you love rose gold, go ahead and wear it. Most people fall somewhere between warm and cool, giving you the ability to bend the rules to your liking. The skin tone rule is really just a guideline, and your personality and style are important factors to consider too.

These days, mixing metals, stones or textures isn’t something you have to avoid. Don’t be afraid to try new pieces of jewelry to find something that you love, even if it isn’t necessarily “right” for your skin tone. If you like something and it makes you feel confident, don’t be afraid to wear it.

https://www.gulfcoastcoin.com/blog/how-to-choose-jewelry-that-looks-good-with-your-skin-tone

About gold jewellery

About gold jewellery

Colour

Throughout history, gold has been treasured for its natural beauty and radiance. For this reason, many cultures have imagined gold to represent the sun.

Yellow gold is still the most popular colour, but today gold is available in a diverse palette. The process of alloying—mixing other metals with pure 24 carat gold—gives malleable gold more durability, but can also be used to change its colour.

White gold is created through alloying pure gold with white metals such as palladium or silver. In addition it is usually plated with rhodium to create a harder surface with a brighter shine. White gold has become the overwhelming choice for wedding bands in the US.

The inclusion of copper results in the soft pink complexion of rose gold while the more unusual colours such as blue and purple can be obtained from the addition of patinas or oxides on the alloy surface. Black gold for example derives its colour from cobalt oxide.

Caratage

What is Gold Jewellery - yellow, white and rose gold braceletsThe weight of gold is measured in troy ounces (1 troy ounce = 31.1034768 grams), however its purity is measured in ‘carats’.

‘Caratage’ is the measurement of gold purity. 24 carat is pure gold with no other metals. Lower caratages contain less gold; 18 carat gold contains 75 per cent gold and 25 per cent other metals, often copper or silver.

The minimum caratage for an item to be called gold varies by country. In the US, 10 carat is the legal minimum accepted standard of gold caratage, 14 carat being the most popular.  In France, the UK, Austria, Portugal and Ireland, 9 carat is the lowest caratage permitted to be called gold. In Denmark and Greece, 8 carat is the legal minimum standard.

 

Fineness

Fineness is another way of expressing the precious metal content of jewellery, and represents the purity in parts per thousand. When stamped on jewellery, usually this is stated without the decimal point.

This chart shows some examples of the composition of various caratages of gold.

Caratage Gold(Au) Silver (Ag)  Copper (Cu) Zinc (Zn) Palladium (Pd)
Yellow Gold 9k 37.5% 42.50% 20%
Yellow Gold 10k 41.70% 52% 6.30%
Yellow Gold 14k 58.30% 30% 11.70%
Yellow Gold 18k 75% 15% 10%
Yellow Gold 22k 91.70% 5% 2% 1.30%
White Gold 9k 37.5% 62.5%
White Gold 10k 41.7% 47.4% 0.9% 10%
White Gold 14k 58.30% 32.20% 9.50%
White Gold 18k 75% 25% (or Pt)
White Gold 22k N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Rose Gold 9k 37.5% 20% 42.5%
Rose Gold 10k 41.70% 20% 38.3%
Rose Gold 14k 58.30% 9.2% 32.5%
Rose Gold 18k 75% 9.2% 22.2%
Rose Gold 22k 91.7% 8.40%

Notes:

The alloying  metal compositions above are typical of those used by the jewellery industry to arrive at the colour/ caratage combinations shown, but are not the only ways to arrive at these combinations.

White gold compositions listed here are nickel free. Nickel-containing white gold alloys form a small/very small percentage of white gold alloys and generally contain other base metals such as copper and zinc.

The following are the common standards of fineness that are used:

.375 = 9 carat (England and Canada)

.417 = 10 carat

.583 (.585) = 14 carat

.750 = 18 carat

.833 = 20 carat (Asia)

.999 (1000) = 24 carat pure gold

Strictly speaking, 14 carat should be 583 (14/24 = .583333), but most manufacturers have adopted the European practice of making 14 carat gold slightly over 14 carat. Thus, the fineness mark is 585 in most 14 carat jewellery.

Similarly, 24 carat should be 1.0 (24/24 = 1.00). However, in practice, there is likely to be a very slight impurity in any gold, and it can only be refined to a fineness level of  999.9 parts per thousand. This is stated as 999.9.

Accepted tolerances on purity vary from market to market. In China, Chuk Kam (which is Cantonese for ‘pure gold’ or literally ‘full gold’) still comprises the majority of sales and is defined as 99.0 per cent minimum gold, with a 1.0 per cent negative tolerance allowed.

http://www.gold.org/about-gold/gold-jewellery

15 Most Expensive Watch Brands in the World

15 Most Expensive Watch Brands in the World

15 Most Expensive Watch Brands in the World

As we all know wristwatch is one of the most important accessories in men’s or women’s wardrobe. The watch is the one of the best accessory in terms of style and you can choose from a simple steel watch to a unique watch in diamonds and jewel encrusted one.  Whatever your style maybe a wristwatch on your hand will always make you look elegant and stylish.

There are a lot of watch manufactures and brands, from standard ones to top-quality luxury ones.  If you are self-sufficient person and you have a lot of money and you want to buy high end luxury watch that will be instantly spotted and recognized by others, then there are many expensive watch brands that you can choose from.  And the first question comes to mind is “What brand has the most expensive watches?”

Not long ago I’ve posted a list of 15 Most expensive wristwatches that costs over 1 million dollar and you can see that in the list some expensive watch brands have many expansive watch models. But there are many other watch makers that have expensive watches.

The most expensive watch brands in the world are as follows. But don’t forget that every year the order can be different because new timepieces are released by the watch makers.

[ordered_list style=”decimal”]

  1. Patek Philippe
  2. Vacheron Constantin
  3. Jaeger-LeCoultre
  4. Blancpain
  5. Cartier
  6. Ulysse Nardin
  7. Chopard
  8. Audemars Piguet
  9. Hublot
  10. Piaget
  11. Girard-Perregaux
  12. Rolex
  13. Omega
  14. A. Lange & Söhne
  15. TAG Heuer

[/ordered_list]

And here a some of interesting expensive watches of this brands:

most-expensive-watch-Patek-Philippe-Sky-Moon-Tourbillon
Patek Philippe – Sky Moon Tourbillon (Price: ~ $5,6 million)
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Vacheron-Constantin-Grand-Complication-pocket-watch
Vacheron Constantin – Grand Complication pocket watch (Price: ~ $1,8 million)
[hr]
most-expensive-watch-Joaillerie-101-Manchette
Jaeger-LeCoultre – Joaillerie 101 Manchette (considered the most expensive watch in world, price unknown)
[hr]
most-expensive-watch-Blancpain-Tourbillion-Diamants
Blancpain – Tourbillion Diamants (Price: ~ $1,812 million)
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most-expensive-watch-Cartier-Phoenix-shaped-watch
Cartier – Phoenix-shaped watch (Price:  ~ $2,755 million)

Some of the timepieces made by this expensive watch brands are the best watches with unique design, top quality, complicated movement and features that other watches don’t have. I know that there are other expensive watch brands but this is best watch brands in the world.

http://www.tiptopwatches.com/watch-facts/15-expensive-watch-brands-world.html