DUMPLING

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Dumpling
DumplingFillings.JPG

A fried dumpling filled with minced chicken and spring onion, originally from China.
Main ingredients Flourpotatoes or bread

Uyghur manta, a variety of Central Asian manti

Dumpling is a broad classification for a dish that consists of pieces of dough (made from a variety of starch sources) wrapped around a filling or of dough with no filling. The dough can be based on breadflour, or potatoes, and may be filled with meatfishcheesevegetablesfruits, or sweets. Dumplings may be prepared using a variety of methods, including bakingboilingfryingsimmering, or steaming, and are found in many world cuisines.

African[edit]

Banku and kenkey define a dumpling in way that they are starchy balls of dough that are steamed. They are formed from fermented cornmeal. Banku is boiled and requires continuous kneading, while kenkey is partly boiled then finished by steaming in corn or banana leaves.[1]

Fufu may be described as a dumpling although in actual sense, it is not. Fufu is made by pounding boiled cassava (common in Ghana) or yam (common in Nigeria) in a wooden mortar with a wooden pestle. Plantain or cocoyam may be added. There are several other versions of fufu in Africa and the Caribbean. There have been other versions of fufu which fit better into the definition of dumplings. These are mostly common outside Africa where they originate. It is made by steaming cassava and plantain/cocoyam flour into thick starchy balls.

Tihlo—prepared from roasted barley flour—originated in the Tigray region of Ethiopia and is now very popular in Amhara as well and spreading further south.[2]

Souskluitjies are dumplings found in South Africa. They are a steamed sweet dumpling, sometimes made with plain flour and sometimes with the addition of dried fruits or other flavors. They are often served with a syrup flavored with cinnamon or a custard sauce.[3][4]

South Africa has another kind of dumpling known as melkkos. These dumplings are formed by putting milk, one teaspoon at a time, into a dry flour mixture. The flour clings to the milk and forms dumplings, which are then boiled in a mixture of milk and butter. They are served hot and sprinkled with cinnamon sugar.[5]

American[edit]

Dropped dumplings simmering for chicken and dumplings, an American comfort food.[6]

Sealed Crustless Sandwich

American dumplings can be made with eggs, milk, baking powder or even yeast, or just from flour and water. Rolled dumplings are rolled into a tube or flat shape and cut into small pieces for cooking, while dropped dumplings are pulled from the unrolled mound of dough in pieces and formed into small balls by hand before dropping them onto a baking sheet, or directly into a frying pan or pot with other ingredients.[citation needed]

Bite-sized, hand-torn pieces of dough are cooked in boiling chicken broth along with a variety of vegetables and, optionally, chunks of chicken to make the dish chicken and dumplings, which is served as a thick soup or stew. Chicken and dumplings is a popular comfort food in the Midwestern and Southern U.S.,[6][7][8] where dumplings are often used as part of the regionally popular Burgoo stew.[citation needed]

The baked dumpling is popular in American cuisine. These sweet dumplings are made by wrapping fruit, frequently a whole tart apple, in pastry, then baking until the pastry is browned and the filling is tender. As an alternative to simply baking them, these dumplings are surrounded by a sweet sauce in the baking dish, and may be basted during cooking. Popular flavours for apple dumplings include brown sugarcaramel, or cinnamon sauces.[citation needed]

Pop-Tarts are a popular American baked dumpling manufactured by Kellogg Company since it’s introduction in 1964. The popular American breakfast dumpling has been officially titled a “Toaster Pastry” although it fits the definition of a dumpling. The Pop Tart has been released with many flavors, while mostly fruit, several dessert flavors have been released.[9]

Smores flavored Pop-Tart, a popular American Dumpling

Another popular American dumpling is the Sealed crustless sandwich. They are mass-produced with peanut butter and jelly by The J. M. Smucker Company as an alternative take on the popular Peanut butter and jelly sandwich.[10]

Boiled dumplings are made from flour to form a dough. A pot of boiling chicken or turkey broth is used to cook this dough. The thickness and the size of the dumplings is at the cook’s discretion. It is optional to serve with the meat in the dish or on the side.[citation needed]

Tortilla dumplings are made by adding tortillas and fillings to a boiling pot of stock. Popular varieties of Southern dumplings include chicken dumplings, turkey dumplings, strawberry dumplings, apple dumplings, ham dumplings, and even butter-bean dumplings.[citation needed]

Asian[edit]

Steamed dumplings are found throughout the region.[11]

Central Asian[edit]

Kazakh/Uzbek/Tajik manti in a steamer

Manti (also manty or mantu) is a steamed dumpling in Central Asian and Chinese Islamic cuisine. It contains a mixture of ground lamb (or beef) spiced with black pepper, enclosed in a dough wrapper. Manti are cooked in a multi-level steamer (mantovarka) and served topped with butter, yogurt, sour cream, or onion sauce. These dumplings are popular throughout Central Asia, including in AfghanistanKazakhstanKyrgyzstanPakistanTajikistanUzbekistan, and the Xinjiang region in China.

Chuchvara is a very small boiled dumpling typical of Uzbek and Tajik cuisine. Made of unleavened dough squares filled with meat, it is similar to the Russian pelmeni and the Chinese wonton, but in observance of the Islamic dietary rules, the meat filling is without pork. Chuchvara can be served in a clear soup or on their own, with vinegar or sauce based on finely chopped greens, tomatoes and hot peppers. Another popular way of serving chuchvara is topped with suzma (strained qatiq) or with smetana (sour cream), Russian-style.

Chinese[edit]

A legend goes that dumplings were first invented in the era of the Three Kingdoms, around 225 AD. Zhuge Liang, a general and minister of Shu Han, dammed up a poison marsh on his southern campaign against the Nanman with dumplings instead of the heads that the Nanman used. However, this legend is more commonly associated with the mantou (the name is supposedly evolved from “蠻頭”, also pronounced as “mantou”).

The jiǎozi (About this sound餃子) is a common Chinese dumpling, which generally consists of minced meat and finely chopped vegetables wrapped into a piece of dough skin. The skin can be either thin and elastic or thicker. Popular meat fillings include ground meat (usually pork, but can instead be beef or chicken), shrimp, and even fish. Popular mixtures include pork with Chinese cabbage, pork with garlic chives, pork and shrimp with vegetables, pork with spring onion, garlic chives with scrambled eggs. Filling mixtures will vary depending on personal tastes and region. Jiaozi are usually boiled, steamed or fried and continue to be a traditional dish eaten on Chinese New Year’s Eve, the evening before Chinese New Year, and special family reunions. Particularly, in Northern China, people generally eat dumpling on the Winter Solstice (December 22nd of each year), a custom signifying a warm winter. Extended family members may gather together to make dumplings, and it is also eaten for farewell to family members or friends. In Northern China, dumplings are commonly eaten with a dipping sauce made of vinegar and chili oil or paste, and occasionally with some soy sauce added in. However, baozi is not a type of jiaozi.

Zongzi wrapped in a bamboo leaf (right) and ready to eat (left)

If dumplings are laid flatly on a pan, first steamed with a lid on and with a thin layer of water, then fried in oil after the water has been evaporated, they are called guotie (鍋貼, that translates to “potstickers”), as the Maillard reactionoccurring on the bottom of the dumplings makes the skin crispy and brown. The same dumplings are called jiaozi if they are just steamed or boiled.

The wonton (Cantonese name) or hún dun in Mandarin (雲呑/餛飩) is another kind of dumpling. The shape is similar to Italian tortellino. It is typically boiled in a light broth or soup and made with a meat or shrimp filling. The skin wrapping for wontons is different—thinner and less elastic—than that used for jiaozi[citation needed]. Wontons are more popular in Southern China (Shanghai, Guangdong, Hong Kong etc.), whereas in Northern China, jiaozi are more popular. Jiaozi, wonton and potstickers are each wrapped differently.

Steamed har gow (shrimp dumplings) served in dim sum

Another type of Chinese dumpling is made with glutinous rice. Usually, the glutinous rice dumplings, zongzi (粽子), are triangle or cone shaped, can be filled with red bean paste, Chinese dates or cured meat depending on region. Glutinous rice dumplings are traditionally eaten during the Duanwu Festival. Other types of dumplings would be “soup dumplings”, commonly referred to as xiaolongbao (小籠包).

Chinese cuisine also include sweet dumplings. Tangyuan (湯圓) are smaller dumplings made with glutinous rice flour and filled with sweet sesame, peanut, red bean paste. Tangyuan may also be served without a filling. Tangyuan are eaten on the 15th day of Chinese New Year, or the Lantern Festival.

See also: dim sum (點心) for descriptions of several other kinds of dumplings such as har gowfun guosiew maiCha siu baolo mai gai and crystal dumplings.

Indian[edit]

Dumplings of India

Indian cuisine features several dishes which could be characterised as dumplings:

  • Ada (Malayalam) is a sweet South Indian dish from Kerala. Scrapped coconut mixed with sugar or jaggery is enveloped between the spread rice-dough and steamed. The sweet version of Kozhakkattai is equally famous in Kerala.[citation needed]
  • Bhajia are dumplings sometimes stuffed with vegetables and fruits.[citation needed]
  • Fara (Hindi) is famous in North India and is very similar to dumplings. It is made of wheat flour with stuffing of lentils and similar delicacies.[citation needed]
  • Gujhia (Hindi) is a sweet dumpling made with wheat flour, stuffed with khoya.
  • Kachori (Hindi) is a round flattened ball made of fine flour filled with a stuffing of baked mixture of yellow moong dal or Urad Dal (crushed and washed horse beans), besan (crushed and washed gram flour), black pepper, red chili powder, salt and other spices.
  • Karanji (MarathiOriya) or Kajjikayi (KannadaTelugu) or Kanoli are fried sweet dumplings made of wheat flour and stuffed with dry or moist coconut delicacies. They are a popular dish among MaharastriansOriyas and South Indians.
  • Kozhakkattai (Tamil) or Kadabu (Kannada), is another South Indian dish that can be sweet, salty or spicy. The outer shell is always steamed sticky rice dough. In the sweet version, a form of sweet filling made with coconuts, boiled lentils and jaggery is used, whereas in the salty version, a mixture of steamed cracked lentils, chillies and some mild spices is used.
  • Another dumpling popular in Western India and South India is the Modak (MarathiOriya) or Modhaka (Kannada) or Modagam (Tamil) or Sugiyan (Malayalam), Kudumu (Telugu) where the filling is made of fresh coconut and jaggery or sugar while the covering is steamed rice dough. It is eaten hot with ghee.
  • Pidi (Malayalam) is another South Indian dish from Kerala that is usually eaten with chicken curry.
  • Pitha (BihariOriyaBengaliAssamese) are stuffed savouries either made by steam or deep frying. A wide range of pithas are available in eastern and north eastern India.
  • Samosa is another popular savoury snack eaten in the Indian Subcontinent and Iranian Plateau. It is a fried dumpling usually stuffed with mince, vegetables (mainly potatoes) and various other spices. Vegetarian variants of samosas, without the added mince stuffing, are also popular and are sold at most eateries or roadside stalls throughout the country.

Indonesian[edit]

Indonesian dumplings were influenced and brought by Chinese immigrants to Indonesia.

  • Pangsit (wonton) is another type of dumpling that may be boiled, fried, or steamed, and often is used as complement of bakmi ayam or chicken noodle.
  • Siomay is an Indonesian fish dumpling served in peanut sauce.

Japanese[edit]

Japanese dango

Dango (団子) is a sweet dumpling made from rice flour, similar to mochi. Dango is eaten year-round, but the different varieties are traditionally eaten in given seasons. Three to four dango are often served on a skewer.

Gyōza (ギョーザ/餃子) is the Japanese version of the Chinese jiaozi.

Nikuman (肉まん) is the Japanese variant of baozi.

Korean[edit]

Korean dumplings are called mandu (만두). They are typically filled with a mixture of ingredients, including ground porkkimchi, vegetables, cellophane noodles, but there are very many variations. Mandu can be steamed, fried, or boiled. The dumplings can also be used to make a soup called mandu-guk (만둣국).

Mongolian[edit]

Nepalese[edit]

Plateful of Momos in Nepal

In Nepal, steamed dumplings known as momos (or momo-cha) are a popular snack, often eaten as a full meal as well. They are similar to the Chinese jiaozi or the Central Asian manti. This dish is native to Nepal and the concept of the dumpling was brought to Nepal by the Newar traders of Kathmandu who were trading goods with Tibet before the 1930s. Many different fillings, both meat based and vegetarian are common. Kathmandu Valley, a popular destination for momos, has with time developed its own essence for this food that differentiates it from its Tibetan counterpart.

Yomari

Momos can be both fried and steamed. Momos are usually served with a dipping sauce normally consisting of tomatoes and chillies as the base ingredient, from which numerous variations can be made. Momo soup is a dish that has steamed momos immersed in a meat broth. Momos that are pan fried after steaming first are known as kothey momo, and steamed momos served in a hot sauce are called C-Momo in Nepal. Momos can also be prepared by directly deep frying without steaming first. Momos are one of the most items on the menus of Nepalese restaurants not only in Nepal but also around the world with significant Nepali populations like India, USA, UK, Australia and some Middle Eastern and European countries.

Yomari, also called Yamari, is a delicacy of the Newar community in Nepal. It is a steamed dumpling that consists of an external covering of rice flour[12] and an inner content of sweet substances such as chaku. The delicacy plays a very important role in Newaa society, and is a key part of the festival of Yomari punhi.[13] According to some, the triangular shape of the yamari is a symbolical representation of one half of the shadkona, the symbol of Saraswati and wisdom.[14]

Caribbean and Latin America[edit]

Home made empanadas from Córdoba, Argentina

Empanadas, whose stuffing, manufacture and types are numerous and varied, differ from traditional dumplings in that they are deep fried or steamed, and excess dough is not cut off.

Bajan[edit]

In Barbados, dumplings differ from those in other Caribbean islands in that they are slightly sweetened. The dumplings may either be of the flour or cornmeal variety. The dough is flavoured with spices, cinnamon and nutmeg. Dumplings are often added with Bajan soup where they are boiled. When found in Stew food, the dumplings are steamed along with ground provision, salted meat, plantain and other ingredients which is served with gravy.

Brazilian[edit]

In Brazil, there are :

– pastéis, thin dough that is mainly stuffed with cheese and then fried,

– empada, muffin-shaped dough stuffed primarily with chicken, cheese or seafood (this is NOT Empanadas).

– coxinhas, thick dough stuff with chicken (could be described as a chicken corn_dog ), and

– bolinhas, which literally translates to ‘little balls’, can have meat(bolinhas de carne) or cheese(bolinhas de queijo) inside.

All dumplings can vary of its original form with optional additions like olives, onions and/or spices. They are commonly served in parties. In some parts of Brazil like Rio it can be found in fast-food kiosks(‘open restaurants’, where there is no door to enter and you are served in a big counter) in the city or in parks, but it is very diffused through the territory, so you could find people who also eat these on the beach or after work with beer, fruity alcoholic drinks known as batidas, or non-alcoholic beverages like soda or refrescos(sort of juice).

Caribbean[edit]

Dumplings are either pan fried using a simple recipe including all-purpose flour, water, and salt made into a thick dough before frying on a pan until golden brown, or boiled in a soup. The fried version is usually served with breakfast codfish as a side.

Chilean[edit]

In Chile, there are pantrucas, a type of flat, elongated irregular dumplings flavoured with fresh parsley and served in soup. In Chiloé, a Chilean southern archipelago, one of the American regions potato is native from, traditional meal are “chapalele”, “milcao”, “chochoca”, “chuhuañe” and “vaeme”. All of them made potato based, cooked or raw and sometimes mixed in different proportions of wheat flour, seasoned with lard. Some are flat and round filled with greaves and fried (milcao); flat boiled (chapaleles, milcaos), similar but bigger to “pantrucas or pancutras” or a roasted roll in a stick (chochoca). Size is one portion and regularly served as bread. Also are served with honey (mainly hot chapaleles, as dessert). In Chile also existing traditional “papas rellenas”. Boiled potatoes and flour dough; meat,onion,some cumin filled and fried; served regularly with crystallized sugar over.

Jamaican[edit]

Dumplings come in three forms in Jamaica, fried, boiled, and roasted. All are made with flour, white or wheat, and the white-floured dumplings are often mixed with a bit of cornmeal. These foods are often served with a variety of dishes like ackee and saltfishkidneysliversalt mackerel, etc. and often taste better when refried. A refried dumpling is an already boiled dumpling left over from previous cooking that is fried, which gives it a slightly crispy outer layer and a tender middle. A purely fried white flour dumpling (also known as a “Johnny Cake”) is golden brown and looks similar to a buñuelo, often substituting the boiled dumpling, but it is mostly consumed as part of breakfast. Fried dumplings can be made with or without sugar. When mixed with sugar, cornmeal and baking powder and fried, this variation is called festival. This delicious variation goes well when served with fried fish, or any other traditional Jamaican home food.

Peruvian[edit]

“Papas Rellenas” or stuffed potatoes consist of a handful of mashed potatoes (without the milk and butter) flattened in the palm of the hand and stuffed with a savoury combination of ingredients. The stuffing usually consists of sautéed meat (could be beef, pork or chicken), onions and garlic. They are all seasoned with cumin, aji, raisins, peanuts, olives and sliced or chopped hard boiled eggs. After stuffing a ball is formed, rolled over flour and deep fried in hot oil. The stuffed potatoes are usually accompanied by onion sauce consisting of sliced onions, lime juice, olive oil, salt, pepper and slices of fresh peppers. The same dish may also be made with seafood. In some countries, yuca purée is used as the starch component of these Latin American dumplings.

Puerto Rican[edit]

In Puerto Rico, dumplings are made of grated tubers such as yuca and malanga with added calabaza, unripe bananas and plantains mixed with flour. These dumplings are a traditional part in Puerto Rican style pigeon pea soup. Olive oil and annatto are usually added and help the mix from turning brown. The dumplings are formed into small balls and are first cooked in olive oil before boiling. Once the dumplings are crispy on the outside, they are then boiled with added ingredients.

Another dumpling that originated in Puerto Rico is the pasteles, a dumpling made of grated root vegetables, squash, plantains, and unripe bananas. The masa is then mixed with milk and annatto oil, and they are stuffed with stewed pork, chick peas, olives, capers and raisins. They are then placed on a banana leaf, tied and then boiled. The origin of pasteles leads back to Natives on the island of Borikén. Pasteles are popular in the Dominican Republic, Hawaii, Trinidad and lately seen in Cuban cuisine.

European[edit]

British and Irish[edit]

Savoury dumplings made from balls of dough are part of traditional British and Irish cuisine. Traditionally dumplings are made from twice the weight of self raising flour to suet, bound together by cold water to form a dough and seasoned with salt and pepper. Balls of this dough are dropped into a bubbling pot of stew or soup, or into a casserole. They sit, partly submerged in the stew, and expand as they are half-boiled half-steamed for ten minutes or so. The cooked dumplings are airy on the inside and moist on the outside. The dough may be flavoured with herbs, or it may have cheese pressed into its centre.

The Norfolk dumpling is not made with fat, but from flour and a raising agent.[15] Cotswold dumplings call for the addition of breadcrumbs and cheese, and the balls of dough may be rolled in breadcrumbs and fried, rather than cooked in a soup or stew.[16] Vegetarian dumplings can be made with vegetable suet, a type of shredded vegetable fat. When sweetened with dried fruit and spices, dumplings can be boiled in water to make a dessert. In Scotland, this is called a clootie dumpling, after the cloth.[17]

Central European[edit]

Tyrolean roast wild boar with Buttermilchserviettenknödel (slices of bread dumpling made with buttermilk)

GermanyRomaniaAustria, the Czech Republic and Slovakia boast a large variety of dumplings, both sweet and savoury. A dumpling is called Kloß in Northern Germany, Knödel, Nockerl or Knöpfle in Southern Germany and Austria. These are flour dumplings, the most common dumplings, thin or thick, made with eggs and semolina flour, boiled in water. Meat dumplings (called Klopse or Klöpse in North-Eastern Germany, Knöpfle and Nocken in Southern Germany) contain meat or liver. Liver dumplings are frequent additions to soup. Thüringer Klöße are made from raw or boiled potatoes, or a mixture of both, and are often filled with croutonsBread dumplings are made with white bread and are sometimes shaped like a loaf of bread, and boiled in a napkin, in which case they are known as napkin dumplings (Serviettenknödel).

Maultaschen are a Swabian (Baden-Württemberg) specialty food, consisting of an outer layer of pasta dough with a filling traditionally made of sausage meat, spinach, bread crumbs and onions and flavored with various spices. Similar in appearance to Italian ravioli, Maultaschen are usually larger, however, each Maultasche being about 8–12 cm (3-5 inches) across.

The only potato dumpling museum in the world, the Thüringer Kloßmuseum, is located in Germany, in the municipality of Heichelheim near Weimar.

A monument to halušky in PoltavaUkraine

Halušky are a traditional variety of dumplings cooked in the Central and Eastern European cuisines (Czech RepublicHungaryPolandRomaniaSerbiaSlovakia, and Ukraine). These are small lumps cut from a thick flour and egg batter and dropped into boiling water, similar to the German SpätzleKnöpfle, or Knödel.

Plum dumplings

In Romania, the dumplings are with plums inside and are called galusca cu prune, while in Hungary, they are called nokedli and in Austria “Zwetschgenknödel”. Sweet varieties called gombócare made with flour and potato dough, which is wrapped around whole plums or apricots, and then boiled and rolled in hot buttered bread crumbs. Shlishkes or “Krumplinudli” are small boiled potato dumplings made from the same potato dough as the sweet plum dumplings, also rolled in hot buttered bread crumbs.

Bryndzové halušky, considered the Slovak national dish, are small potato dumplings without a filling, served with salty sheep’s cheese on top. The same dumplings are also used to create a similar dish, strapačky. Also available are their related stuffed version called pirohy, usually filled with bryndza (bryndzové pirohy), quark cheese, potatoes, onions, cabbage, mushrooms, or meat.

Slices of Czech knedlík

In Czech cuisine dumplings have two main forms:

  • Knödel is called in Czech knedlík and in Slovakia knedľa. It can be either houskový (bread) or bramborový (potato) knödel. These dumplings are boiled in loaf shape and then cut in slices and are part of many Czech national dishes such as Vepřo knedlo zelo or Svíčková na smetaně.
  • Ovocné knedlíky (ball-shaped knedle) filled in with fruit: plums, strawberry, blueberry etc. Meal is completed on plate with grated quark, melted butter and powder sugar.

Idrijski žlikrofi are Slovenian dumplings, regionally located in the town of Idrija. They are made from dough with potato filling and have a characteristic form of a hat. Žlikrofi are made by a traditional recipe from the 19th century, but the source of the recipe is unknown due to lack of historical sources. The dish may be served as a starter or a side dish to meat based dishes. Žlikrofi were the first Slovenian food to be classified as a Traditional speciality guaranteed dish.

Khinkali is a Georgian dumpling[18] which originated in the mountain regions of PshaviMtiuleti, and Khevsureti.[19] Varieties of khinkali spread from there across different parts of the Caucasus.[20] The fillings of khinkali vary with the area. The original recipe consistsof only minced meat (lamb or beef and pork mixed), onions, chili peppersalt and cumin. Modern recipes use herbs like parsley and coriander. In Muslim-majority areas the use of beef and lamb is more prevalent. Mushrooms, potatoes, or cheese may be used in place of meat.

Eastern European[edit]

Ukrainian varenyky filled with sour cherry

Pierogi of Poland, varenyky of Ukraine, pelmeni of Russia and Belarus are ravioli-like crescent-shaped dumplings filled with savoury or sweet filling. Varenyky are usually boiled or steamed. Pierogi are often fried after boiling.

“Little ears”, variously called uszka in Poland, ushki (ушки) in Russia, vushka (вушка) in Ukraine, and vushki (вушкі) in Belarus, are folded ring-shaped dumplings similar in shape to Italian tortellini or Jewish kreplach. They are stuffed with meat or mushrooms and traditionally served in borshch or clear soup. In Romania, “little ears” (Romanianurechiuşe) are also served in dumpling soup (supă de găluşte)

Kluski are a different variety of Polish dumplings.

Lithuanian potato dumplings – cepelinai

Lithuanian dough dumplings are called koldūnai and virtiniai. Usually they are filled with meat or curd. One of the varieties is called Šaltanosiai, “Cold nosed ones”, and is made with blueberry filling. There are also potato dumplings called cepelinai or didžkukuliai, filled with meat or curd inside, served with soured cream. A similar dish exists in Belarus that is called klyocki (клёцкi).

Russian pelmeni are smaller than varenyky and made only of minced meat with addition of onions and spices. Sometimes the meat used is only beef, in other recipes is a mixture of beef with pork and/or mutton. Pelmeni should be juicy inside. They are unrelated to the pasta with which they are sometimes compared as it is a savoury main dish. They are usually boiled in water with spices and salt, or in meat bouillon, sometimes fried before serving. They are often served with plenty of sour cream.

Pelmeni ready for boiling

An important difference between pelmeni, varenyky, and pierogi is the thickness of the dough shell—in pelmeni this is as thin as possible, and the proportion of filling to dough is usually higher.[21] Pelmeni are never served with a sweet filling, which distinguishes them from varenyky and pierogi, which sometimes are. Also, the fillings in pelmeni are usually raw, while the fillings of vareniki and pierogi are typically precooked.

The word pelmeni is derived from pel’n’an’ (пельнянь) – literally “ear bread” in the native Finno-Ugric KomiUdmurt, and Mansi languages.[22][23] It is unclear when pelmeni entered the cuisines of the indigenous Siberian people and when they first appeared in Russian cuisine. One theory suggests pelmeni, or stuffed boiled dumplings in general, originated in Siberia, possibly a simplified adaptation of the Chinese Wonton (in some dialect is called Bāomiàn “包面”). Pelmeni are particularly good means of quickly preserving meat during long Siberian winter, especially eliminating the need to feed livestock during the long winter months.

The main difference between pelmeni and momos is their size—a typical pelmeni is about 2 to 3 centimetres (0.79 to 1.18 in) in diameter, whereas momos are often at least twice that size.

In Siberia, especially popular with the Buryat peoples are steamed dumplings called pozi (buuz in Mongolian, from Chinese包子pinyinbāozi). They are usually made with an unleavened dough, but are often encountered leavened. The traditional filling is meat, but the kind of meat and how it is processed varies. In Mongolia, mutton is favored, and is chopped rather than ground; pork and beef mixes are more popular in Russia.

Mantisamsachiburekki, and belyashi are all popular imported dumplings.

Italian[edit]

Ravioli and tortellini fit the basic definition of a dumpling: these are pockets of pasta enclosing various fillings (cheese, mushrooms, spinach, seafood, or meat). Instead of being made from a ball of dough, the dough is rolled flat, cut into a shape, filled with other ingredients, and then the dough is closed around the filling.

Gnocchi (Spanishñoquis, widely adopted in ArgentinaPortuguesenhoqueSloveneNjoki) is a different kind of Italian dumpling. The word gnocchi literally means “lumps”, and they are rolled and shaped from a mixture of egg with potato, semolina, flour, or ricotta cheese (with or without spinach). The lumps are boiled in water and served with melted butter, grated cheese, or other pasta sauces.

Maltese[edit]

Maltese ravioli (ravjul) are pockets of pasta filled with ricotta cheese.

Pastizzi and qassatat are pockets of dough that can be filled with a variety of fillings, usually ricotta (irkotta) or mashed peas.

Scandinavian[edit]

Norwegian[edit]

In Norwegian cuisine, dumplings have a vast variety of names, as the dialects differ substantially. Names include potetballklubbkløbbraspeballkomlekumlekompekumpekodlakudleklotkamsballbaillkomperdøsekumperdøsekompadøsruterrutaraskekakoriskklotrematkrumme and kromme. They are usually made from crushed potatoes mixed with various types of flour, often with an emphasis on barley and wheat. In some local recipes the potatoes are dehydrated, while in others there is a mixture of raw and boiled potatoes. Occasionally they are filled with bacon. Depending on local tradition, dumplings can be sided with syrup, swede and often meat if the dumplings does not have meat filling.

Swedish[edit]

In Swedish cuisine, potato dumplings of originally German origin[24] have several regional names, mainly depending on the type of flour used. When the potato is mixed with wheat flour, which is more common in southern Sweden, it is called kroppkaka. In Blekinge[25] and parts of the island of Öland, it is traditionally made from grated raw potato, which makes it greyish in colour, while on Gotland and in Småland it is predominantly made from mashed boiled potato, and is thus whiter in colour.[24] The kroppkaka is usually filled with diced, smoked bacon and chopped, raw onion, and is often spiced with allspice.[24]

Swedish palt, served with butter and lingonberry jam.

When the potato is mixed with barley flour, which is traditional in northern Sweden, it is known as palt in LaplandVästerbotten and Norrbotten,[24] and as kams in JämtlandÅngermanland and Medelpad.[24][26] Originally, palt was eaten all over Sweden and was made from barley or rye flour alone, but during the 19th century, when potato was added and wheat became more common and inexpensive, the northern recipes retained the original name, while kroppkaka, which had always been the name used on Öland for the flour dumpling, became the name for the variant in southern Sweden.[27]

Palt and kams is usually filled with diced, unsmoked bacon. However, sometimes fried bacon is served on the side of unfilled palt or kams, which then is known as flatpalt or flatkams, as the lack of filling makes it flatter. The most well-known palt variant is the Pitepalt from Piteå. In Dalarna, where the dish is known as klabbe, it is still made without potatoes and is never filled. Klabbe is instead served with diced bacon on the side.[28]

A variant of palt is blodpalt, where pig, beef or reindeer blood is mixed into the dough. Other palt variants are leverpalt, with minced liver added to the dough, and njurpalt, with diced kidney mixed into the bacon filling.[24] Blodpaltalso existed across the country originally, and has been found in iron age graves in Halland.[26]

The filled kroppkakapalt or kams ball – as well as the flatter, unfilled flatpaltflatkams and klabbe – is dropped into boiling salted water and cooked until it floats. It is traditionally served warm with melted butter and lingonberry jam, although in some parts of southern Sweden the melted butter is replaced by half cream (a mix of milk and cream) or a warm milk sauce, and in parts of northern Sweden the butter is replaced by a warm milk sauce spiced with messmör. Leftover kroppkaka is often served halved and fried.[24]

Unfilled flour dumplings for use in soup are called klimp if the flour is wheat, but mjölpalt if the flour is barley or rye.[24]

Middle Eastern[edit]

Armenian boraki

Georgian khinkali

Iraqi-Jewish kubbeh

Arabic[edit]

Caucasian[edit]

Meat-filled manti in Armenia are typically served with yogurt or sour cream, accompanied by clear soup. Mantapour is an Armenian beef soup with manta.

Boraki (ArmenianԲորակի) are a kind of Armenian fried dumplings. The main distinction of boraki is that the minced meat is pre-fried, the boraki are formed as small cylinders with an open top, the cylinders are lightly boiled in broth and then fried. Boraki are served garnished with yogurt and chopped garlic.[29]

Dushbara (Azerbaijan: Düşbərə) is an Azeri soup with tiny lamb-filled dumplings.[30]

Khinkali (Georgianხინკალი) are Georgian dumplings usually filled with spiced meat. herbs (usually coriander), onions, and garlic. Mushrooms, potatoes, or cheese may be used in place of meat. The khinkali is typically consumed first by sucking the juices while taking the first bite, in order to prevent the dumpling from bursting. The towns of DushetiPasanauri and Mtskheta are particularly famous for their khinkali.

Mataz are dumplings in Circassian and some other Caucasian cuisines, closely related to manti. They typically consist of a spiced meat mixture, usually lamb or ground beef, with greens and onions, put in a dough wrapper, either boiled or steamed. Mushrooms, potatoes, or cheese may be used in place of meat.

WREATH

wreath (pronunciation: /ɹiːθ/) is an assortment of flowersleavesfruitstwigs, or various materials that are constructed to resemble a ring.[1]

In English-speaking countries, wreaths are used typically as household ornaments, mainly as an Advent and Christmas decoration. They are also used in ceremonial events in many cultures around the globe. They can be worn as a chaplet around the head, or as a garland around the neck. Wreaths have much history and symbolism associated with them. They are usually made from evergreens and symbolize strength, as evergreens last even throughout the harshest winters. Bay laurel may also be used, and these wreaths are known as laurel wreath.

Ancient Etruscan wreaths[edit]

Wreath with ivy leaves and berries, a satyr‘s head at either end. Gold sheet, Etruscan artwork, 400–350 BC. From a tomb near Tarquinia.

Wreaths were a design used in ancient times in southern Europe. The most well-known are pieces of Etruscan civilization jewelry, made of gold or other precious metals. Symbols from Greek myths often appear in the designs, embossed in precious metal at the ends of the wreath. Ancient Roman writers referred to Etruscan corona sutilis, which were wreaths with their leaves sewn onto a background.[2] These wreaths resemble a diadem, with thin metal leaves being attached to an ornamental band.[3] Wreaths also appear stamped into Etruscan medallions. The plants shown making the wreaths in Etruscan jewelry include ivy, oak, olive leaves, myrtle, laurel, wheat and vines.

Wreaths were worn as crowns by Etruscan rulers. The Etruscan symbolism continued to be used in Ancient Greece and Rome. Roman magistrates also wore golden wreaths as crowns, as a symbolic testament to their lineage back to Rome’s early Etruscan rulers. Roman magistrates also used several other prominent Etruscan symbols in addition to a golden wreath crown: fasces, a curule chair, a purple toga, and an ivory rod.[4]

Ancient Greece and Rome[edit]

A replica bust of Apollowearing a laurel wreath.

In the Greco-Roman world, wreaths were used as an adornment that could represent a person’s occupation, rank, their achievements and status. The wreath that was commonly used was the laurel wreath. The use of this wreath comes from the Greek myth involving Apollo, Zeus’ son and the god of life and light, who fell in love with the nymph Daphne. When he pursued her she fled and asked the river god Peneus to help her. Peneus turned her into a laurel tree. From that day, Apollo wore a wreath of laurel on his head. Laurel wreaths became associated with what Apollo embodied; victory, achievement and status and would later become one of the most commonly used symbols to address achievement throughout Greece and Rome. Laurel wreaths were used to crown victorious athletes at the original Olympic Games[5] and are still worn in Italy by university students who just graduated.[6]

Other types of plants used to make wreath crowns also had symbolic meaning. For example, oak leaves symbolized wisdom, and were associated with Zeus, who according to Greek mythology made his decisions while resting in an oak grove. The Twelve Tables, dating to 450 BC, refer to funeral wreaths as a long-standing tradition.[7] Olive wreath was the prize for the winner at the ancient Olympic Games.[8]

Modern wreaths[edit]

Harvest wreath[edit]

A Scandinavian-style harvest wreath made of woven straw.

A five-candle Advent wreath in the chancel of a Christian church (top) and a Christmas wreath adorning an American home, with the door chalked for Epiphanytide and the wreath hanger bearing a placard of the Angel Gabriel (bottom)

Harvest wreaths, a common household decoration today, are a custom with ancient roots in Europe. The creation of harvest wreaths in Europe can be traced back to ancient times, and is associated with animistic spiritual beliefs. In Ancient Greece, the harvest wreath was a sacred amulet, using wheat or other harvested plants, woven together with red and white wool thread. The harvest wreath would be hung by the door year-round.[9]

Harvest wreaths were an important symbol to the community in Ancient Greece, not merely to the farmer and his family. The festivals devoted to Dionysus, the Oschophoria and Anthesteria, included a ritual procession called the eiresîonê. A harvest wreath was carried to Pyanopsia and Thargelia by young boys, who would sing during the journey. The laurel or olive wreath would be hung at the door, and then offerings were made to Helios and the Hours. It was hoped that this ritual would bring protection against crop failure and plagues.[10]

In Poland, the harvest wreath (wieniec) is a central symbol of the Harvest Festival, Dozynki. Wreaths are made of different shapes and sizes, using harvested grain plants, fruit and nuts. The wreath is then brought to a church for a blessing by a priest. The tradition includes a procession to the family home from the church, with a girl or young woman leading the procession and carrying the wreath. The procession is followed with a celebration and feast.[11] Ukraine, Hungary, and other Eastern Europe cultures also have similar rituals that began as part of pre-Christian culture.

Advent and Christmas wreaths[edit]

In Christianity, wreaths are used to observe the Advent season, in preparation for Christmastide and Epiphanytide, as well as to celebrate the latter two liturgical seasons.[12] These wreaths, as with other Advent and Christmas decorations, are often set up on the first Sunday of Advent,[13][14] a custom that is sometimes done liturgically, through a hanging of the greens ceremony.[15] The Advent wreath was first used by Lutherans in Germany in the 16th century,[16] and in 1839, Lutheran priest Johann Hinrich Wichern used a wreath made from a cart wheel to educate children about the meaning and purpose of Christmas, as well as to help them count its approach, thus giving rise to the modern version of the Advent wreath. For every Sunday of Advent, starting with the fourth Sunday before Christmas, he would put a white candle in the wreath and for every day in between he would use a red candle.[17][18] The use of the Advent wreath has since spread from the Lutheran Church to many Christian denominations,[19][20] and some of these traditions, such as the Catholic Church and Moravian Church, have introduced unique variations to it.[21] All of the Advent wreaths, however, have four candles, and many of them have a white candle in the centre, the Christ candle, which is lit on Christmas Day.[22] Advent and Christmas wreaths are constructed of evergreens to represent everlasting life brought through Jesus and the circular shape of the wreath represents God, with no beginning and no end.[23][24][25] Advent and Christmas wreaths are now a popular symbol in preparation for and to celebrate the coming of Christ, with the former being used to mark the beginning of the Christian Church’s liturgical year and both serving as décor during Advent and Christmas festivities. While Advent wreaths are erected on stands or placed on tables, Christmas wreaths are often hung on doors or walls.[26] Within Advent, the Church observes Saint Lucy’s Day, the memorial of Saint Lucy, who is said to have brought “food and aid to Christians hiding in the catacombs” using a candle-lit wreath to “light her way and leave her hands free to carry as much food as possible”;[27][28] as such, on this day, many young Christian girls dress as Saint Lucy, wearing a wreath on their head.[29]

Funeral and memorial wreaths[edit]

Wreaths laid at war memorials in Australia

Wreaths are mounted on frames near the Moscow grave of Russian intellectual Andrei Sakharov, 1990

The symbolism of wreaths has been used at funerals since at least the time of Ancient Greece, to represent a circle of eternal life. Evergreen wreaths were laid at the burial place of early Christian virgin martyrs in Europe, the evergreen representing the victory of the eternal spirit over death.[5]

In early modern England, a wreath custom existed for the funerals of “young maidens”. A young woman of the same age as the one being mourned would lead the funeral procession, carrying a wreath of white flowers to represent the purity of the deceased, and “that eternal crown of glory reserved for her in heaven”.[30]

By the Victorian era, the symbolism of flowers had grown to become an elaborate language, and the symbolism of funeral wreaths was no exception. Flowers represented life and resurrection. Specific flowers were used in funeral wreaths to represent particular sentiments. Cypress and willow were used for crafting wreath frames, and were associated with mourning by the Victorians.[5]

Wreaths are commonly laid at the tombs of soldiers and at memorial cenotaphs during Memorial Day and Remembrance Day ceremonies. Wreaths may also be laid in memory of persons lost at sea, either from an accident or due to navy action. In a memorial service at sea, the wreath is lowered to the water and set adrift.

Wreaths worn as crowns[edit]

A wreath may be used as a headdress made from leaves, flowers and branches. It is typically worn in festive occasions and on holy days. Wreaths originally were made for use with paganrituals in Europe, and were associated with the changing seasons and fertility. Christianity accepted the symbolism of the wreath based upon its Roman association with honour and moral virtue.[31] During the Middle Ages, Christian art featured depictions of the Virgin Mary and various saints crowned with wreaths, much as figures from Roman and Greek mythology were depicted wearing wreaths, as well as Roman and Greek rulers and heroes.

Maypole wreath[edit]

Maypole with wreaths, raised for Midsummercelebrations in Östra Insjö, Dalarna, Sweden

Wreath customs in Europe have survived over many centuries. The observance of May Day in England includes Maypole festivities, culminating in a race by young unmarried men to climb to the top of the Maypole to capture the May Day wreath perched at the top of the pole. The winner of this contest would wear the wreath as his crown, and would be recognized as the May Day King for the rest of the holiday. Plants traditionally used to make Midsummer wreaths and garlands include white lilies, green birchfennelSt. John’s Wortwormwood,[32] vervain and flax. The flowers used in making the Midsummer wreath had to be picked early in the morning before the dew had dried; the belief was that once the dew dried, the magical properties of the plants evaporated with the dew.[33]

Midsummer celebrations are still observed in Germany and Scandinavia as well, with Maypoles and wreaths playing a prominent role, similar to England.

Wreath symbolism in England[edit]

By the Renaissance period, wreaths became symbols of political and religious alliances in England. Protestant reformers such as the Puritans saw wreaths and the holidays they were associated with, such as May Day, as being pagancorrupting influences that destroyed healthy Christian morality. Soldiers confiscated wreaths in Oxford on May Day of 1648.[34] During the Interregnum following the overthrow of Charles I of England, wreaths symbolized Royalist sympathies. In Bath, Somerset, the coronation of Charles II of England was marked with a procession of 400 maidens in white and green, carrying “gilded crowns, crowns made of flowers, and wreaths made of laurel mixed with tulips”, and led by the mayor’s wife.[34]

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RUM

Rum display in a liquor store

Government House rum, manufactured by the Virgin Islands Company distillery in St. Croix, circa 1941

Rum is a distilled alcoholic drink made from sugarcane byproducts, such as molasses, or directly from sugarcane juice, by a process of fermentation and distillation. The distillate, a clear liquid, is then usually aged in oakbarrels.

The majority of the world’s rum production occurs in the Caribbean and Latin America. Rum is also produced in AustraliaPortugalAustriaCanadaFijiIndiaJapanMauritiusNepalNew Zealand, the PhilippinesReunion IslandSouth AfricaSpainSwedenTaiwanThailand, the United Kingdom and the United States.

Rums are produced in various grades. Light rums are commonly used in cocktails, whereas “golden” and “dark” rums were typically consumed straight or neaton the rocks, or used for cooking, but are now commonly consumed with mixers. Premium rums are also available, made to be consumed either straight or iced.

Rum plays a part in the culture of most islands of the West Indies as well as in The Maritimes and Newfoundland. This drink has famous associations with the Royal Navy (where it was mixed with water or beer to make grog) and piracy (where it was consumed as bumbo). Rum has also served as a popular medium of economic exchange, used to help fund enterprises such as slavery (see Triangular trade), organized crime, and military insurgencies (e.g., the American Revolution and Australia’s Rum Rebellion).

History

Origins

According to Maria Dembinska, the King of Cyprus, Peter I of Cyprus or Pierre I de Lusignan (9 October 1328 – 17 January 1369), brought rum with him as a gift for the other royal dignitaries at the Congress of Kraków, held in 1364.[9] This is feasible given the position of Cyprus as a significant producer of sugar in the Middle Ages,[10] although the alcoholic sugar drink named rum by Dembinska might not have resembled modern distilled rums very closely. Dembinska also suggests Cyprus rum was often drunk mixed with an almond milk drink, also produced in Cyprus, called soumada.[11]

Another early rum-like drink is brum. Produced by the Malay people, brum dates back thousands of years.[12] Marco Polo also recorded a 14th-century account of a “very good wine of sugar” that was offered to him in the area that became modern-day Iran.[2]

The first distillation of rum in the Caribbean took place on the sugarcane plantations there in the 17th century. Plantation slaves discovered that molasses, a byproduct of the sugar refining process, could be fermented into alcohol.[13] Later, distillation of these alcoholic byproducts concentrated the alcohol and removed impurities, producing the first modern rums. Tradition suggests this type of rum first originated on the island of Barbados. However, in the decade of the 1620s, rum production was also recorded in Brazil.[14] A liquid identified as rum has been found in a tin bottle found on the Swedish warship Vasa, which sank in 1628.[15]

A 1651 document from Barbados stated, “The chief fuddling they make in the island is Rumbullion, alias Kill-Divil, and this is made of sugar canes distilled, a hot, hellish, and terrible liquor.”[13]

Colonial America[edit]

Pirates carrying rum to shore to purchase slaves as depicted in The Pirates Own Book by Charles Ellms

After rum’s development in the Caribbean, the drink’s popularity spread to Colonial North America. To support the demand for the drink, the first rum distillery in the British colonies of North America was set up in 1664 on Staten IslandBoston, Massachusetts had a distillery three years later.[16] The manufacture of rum became early Colonial New England’s largest and most prosperous industry.[17] New England became a distilling center due to the technical, metalworking and cooperage skills and abundant lumber; the rum produced there was lighter, more like whiskey. Rhode Island rum even joined gold as an accepted currency in Europe for a period of time.[18]Estimates of rum consumption in the American colonies before the American Revolutionary War had every man, woman, or child drinking an average of 3 imperial gallons (14 l) of rum each year.[19]

To support this demand for the molasses to produce rum, along with the increasing demand for sugar in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries, a labor source to work the sugar plantations in the Caribbean was needed. A triangular trade in rum, molasses, and slaves was established between Africa, the Caribbean, and the colonies to support this need.[20] The exchange was quite profitable, and the disruption to the trade caused by the Sugar Act in 1764 may have even helped cause the American Revolution.[19] In the slave trade, rum was also used as a medium of exchange. For example, the slave Venture Smith, whose history was later published, had been purchased in Africa for four gallons of rum plus a piece of calico.

The popularity of rum continued after the American Revolution, with George Washington insisting on a barrel of Barbados rum at his 1789 inauguration.[21]

Rum started to play an important role in the political system; candidates attempted to influence the outcome of an election through their generosity with rum. The people would attend the hustings to see which candidate appeared more generous. The candidate was expected to drink with the people to show he was independent and truly a republican.[22][23]

Eventually the restrictions on sugar imports from the British islands of the Caribbean, combined with the development of American whiskey, led to a decline in the drink’s popularity in North America.

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ATOLE

Atole or Spanish About this sounda’tole , from Nahuatl ātōlli [aːˈtoːlːi]), also known as atol and atol de elote, is a traditional hot corn- and masa-based beverage of Mesoamerican origin. Chocolate atole is known as champurrado or atole. It is typically accompanied with tamales, and very popular during the Christmas holiday season (las Posadas)

In Mexico[edit]

In Mexico, the drink typically includes masa (corn hominy flour), water, piloncillo (unrefined cane sugar), cinnamon, vanilla, and optional chocolate or fruit. The mixture is blended and heated before serving. Atole is made by toasting masa on a comal (griddle), then adding water that was boiled with cinnamon sticks. The resulting blends vary in texture, ranging from a porridge to a very thin, liquid consistency. Atole can also be prepared with riceflour, or oatmeal in place of masa. In northern Mexico, a variation is also made using pinole (sweetened toasted corn meal). Although atole is one of the traditional drinks of the Mexican holiday Day of the Dead, it is very common during breakfast and dinnertime at any time of year. It is usually sold as street food.

Atole served at the Atole Fair in Coacalco de BerriozábalState of Mexico

In Northern Mexico and South Texas, atole is a traditional comfort food. It is often eaten as a breakfast or an after dinner snack on cold days. In New Mexicoblue corn atole is finely ground cornmeal toasted for cooking, consumed as a grainy porridge-style drink served warm, usually sweetened with sugar and/or thinned with milk. It is usually served at breakfast like cream of wheat or oatmeal. Elders are said to have drunk atole because it gave them energy and if a mother is nursing it gives her more milk.[1] Salvadoran varieties include atol shuco (“dirty” atol, a reference to its darker color), particularly popular in the Cabañas region.[2] The Nicaraguanhomologue is pinolillo. In some parts of Honduras, fresh corn is ground and the expressed liquid is used as the base (instead of masa

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SALSA MUSIC

Salsa music is a popular dance music genre that initially arose in New York City during the 1960s. Salsa is the product of various musical genres including the Cuban son montunoguarachacha cha chámambo, and to a certain extent bolero, and the Puerto Rican bomba and plenaLatin jazz, which was also developed in New York City, has had a significant influence on salsa arrangers, piano guajeos, and instrumental soloists.[5]

Salsa is primarily Cuban son, itself a fusion of Spanish canción and guitar and Afro-Cuban percussion, merged with North American music styles such as jazz. Salsa also occasionally incorporates elements of rockR&B, and funk.[6] All of these non-Cuban elements are grafted onto the basic Cuban son montuno template when performed within the context of salsa.[7]

The first salsa bands were predominantly Cubans and Puerto Ricans who moved to New York since the 1920s.[8][9][10] The music eventually spread throughout Colombia and the rest of the Americas.[11] Ultimately, it became a global phenomenon. Some of the founding salsa artists were Johnny Pacheco (the creator of the Fania All-Stars), Celia CruzRay BarrettoRubén BladesWillie ColónLarry HarlowRoberto RoenaBobby ValentínEddie Palmieri, and Héctor Lavoe.

Salsa as a musical term

Salsa means ‘sauce‘ in the Spanish language, and carries connotations of the spiciness common in Latin and Caribbean cuisine.[13] In the 20th century, salsa acquired a musical meaning in both English and Spanish. In this sense salsa has been described as a word with “vivid associations”.[14] Cubans and Puerto Ricans in New York have used the term analogously to swing or soul music. In this usage salsa connotes a frenzied, “hot” and wild musical experience that draws upon or reflects elements of Latin culture, regardless of the style.[15][16]

Various music writers and historians have traced the use of salsa to different periods of the 20th century. Max Salazar traces the word back to the early 1930s, when Ignacio Piñeiro composed “Échale salsita”, a Cuban son protesting tasteless food.[17] While Salazar describes this song as the origin of salsa meaning “danceable Latin music”, Ed Morales describes the usage in the same song as a cry from Piñeiro to his band, telling them to increase the tempo to “put the dancers into high gear”.[18] Morales claims that later in the 1930s, vocalist Beny Moré would shout salsa during a performance “to acknowledge a musical moment’s heat, to express a kind of cultural nationalist sloganeering [and to celebrate the] ‘hotness’ or ‘spiciness’ of Latin American cultures”.[18] World music author Sue Steward claims salsa was originally used in music as a “cry of appreciation for a particularly piquant or flashy solo”.[14] She cites the first use in this manner to a Venezuelan radio DJ named Phidias Danilo Escalona;[14][19] In 1955 Cheo Marquetticreated a new band called Conjunto Los Salseros and recorded some new songs ( Sonero and Que no muera el son ).In 1955 José Curbelo recorded some others salsa songs (La familia, La la la and Sun sun sun ba bae). The contemporary meaning of salsa as a musical genre can be traced back to New York City Latin music promoter Izzy Sanabria:[20]

In 1973, I hosted the television show Salsa which was the first reference to this particular music as salsa. I was using [the term] salsa, but the music wasn’t defined by that. The music was still defined as Latin music. And that was a very, very broad category, because it even includes mariachi music. It includes everything. So salsa defined this particular type of music… It’s a name that everyone could pronounce.[21]

Sanabria’s Latin New York magazine was an English language publication. Consequently, his promoted events were covered in The New York Times, as well as Time and Newsweek magazines. They reported on this “new” phenomenon taking New York by storm—salsa.[22]

But promotion certainly wasn’t the only factor in the music’s success, as Sanabria makes clear: “Musicians were busy creating the music but played no role in promoting the name salsa.”[23] Johnny Pacheco, the creative director and producer of Fania Records, molded New York salsa into a tight, polished and commercially successful sound. The unprecedented appeal of New York salsa, particularly the “Fania sound”, led to its adoption across Latin America and elsewhere.

Globally, the term salsa has eclipsed the original names of the various Cuban musical genres it encompasses. Ironically, Cuban-based music was promoted more effectively worldwide in the 1970s and 1980s by the salsa industry, than by Cuba. For a brief time in the early 1990s a fair number of Cuban musicians embraced the term, calling their own music salsa Cubana.[24] The practice did not catch on however.

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Sriracha sauce

The origin and history of Sriracha is debated. One report has it that the sauce was first produced by a Thai woman named Thanom Chakkapak in the town of Si Racha (or Sri Racha).[7] According to the Thai “Chomrom Rak Si Racha” (The Si Racha Lovers’ Association) the sauce was first made in Si Racha by Burmese sawmill workers. The association interviewed 88-year-old Thawat Wiphisamakun, known locally as Ah Pae. Ah Pae’s maternal grandmother had a small shop in Si Racha. The Burmese workers came to the shop to buy chillies, salt, vinegar, and sugar to pound in a mortar to make their sauce. Eventually she started making the sauce herself, both for family use and for sale to customers. Soon, another customer, Kimsua Thimkrachang, began to buy large quantities of chillies, salt, vinegar, and sugar. He was making the chilli sauce for sale, using the brand name, “Sauce Si Racha Traa Phukhao Thong” (Golden Mountain Brand Si Racha Sauce) with a picture of the Golden Mountain Temple on the label. Its name was “Si Racha Phanich”.[8]

Another report has it that the sauce originated in the town of Sri Racha (Sri Racha, Sriracha), Thailand in the early 1930s by Madam La Orr Suwanprasop. La Orr was born and raised in Sri Racha and eventually met her husband who was from Bangkok. Upon getting married she and her husband moved to Bangkok where she would continuously make batches of the famous chili sauce for her friends. Her friends would encourage her to make the sauce for sale which ultimately motivated her to start her sriracha sauce business.

After discussing with a monk, La Orr was given the blessing to start the sriracha chili sauce business. The monk had given her the idea to name the sauce Sriracha Sauce, after her hometown. By 1932, Madam La Orr Suwanprasop began producing and selling her sauce in Bangkok. Over time, the rumor of her sauce began to spread and chefs all over Bangkok started using her sauce in their restaurants. La Orr and her family eventually entered their sauce into annual competitions where she was awarded several gold medals which is why their Sriracha sauce is named the Gold Medal Brand.

After winning various medals and having much recognition for their sauce, La Orr and her family eventually brought their medals to the government food department in Bangkok to establish that they are the original creators of “Sriracha Sauce”. By this time, it was very difficult for the government to prove that they were the original creators of the famous sauce as there were several other “copycat” brands but there are no records showing that the sauce was made before 1932. The food department recommended that they change their logo’s design so that it incorporates wording in both Thai and Buddhist translating to “Produced in 1932” which became a strong indicator to tell that the Gold Medal brand was the first and oldest of the Sriracha sauce brands. Today, Lakut Suwanprasop, son of Madam La Orr Suwanprasop, still follows the traditions of his mother in creating and selling the Sriracha sauce from fresh, well-inspected chilis. 1235 N LOOP 336 WEST CONROE TX 77301

BURRITO

History

A basic burrito with meat and cheese

Before the development of the modern burrito, the Mesoamerican peoples of Mexico used corn tortillas in 10,000 B.C. to wrap foods, with fillings of chili pepperstomatoesmushroomssquash, and avocados.[6] Historically, the Pueblo peoples of the Southwestern US also made tortillas filled with beans and meat sauce and prepared much like the modern burrito.[7] But these preparations could also be said to be the origin of the simpler taco, rather than the modern burrito.

The precise origin of the modern burrito is not known. Some have speculated that it may have originated with vaqueros, the cowboys of northern Mexico in the 19th century.[6][8] In the 1895 Diccionario de Mexicanismos, the burrito or taco was identified as a regional item from the Mexican state of Guanajuato and defined as “Tortilla arrollada, con carne u otra cosa dentro, que en Yucatán llaman coçito, y en Cuernavaca y en Mexico, taco” (A rolled tortilla with meat or other ingredients inside, called ‘coçito’ in Yucatán and ‘taco’ in the city of Cuernavaca and in Mexico City).[8][9]

An oft-repeated piece of folk history is the story of a man named Juan Méndez who sold tacos at a street stand in the Bella Vista neighborhood of Ciudad Juárez during the Mexican Revolution period (1910–1921), while using a donkey as a transport for himself and his food, .[10] To keep the food warm, Méndez wrapped it in large homemade flour tortillas underneath a small tablecloth. As the “food of the burrito” (i.e., “food of the little donkey”) grew in popularity, “burrito” was eventually adopted as the name for these large tacos.[6]

Another creation story tells of Ciudad Juárez in the 1940s, where a street food vendor created the tortilla-wrapped food to sell to poor children at a state-run middle school. The vendor would call the children his “burritos”, because burro is a colloquial term for a dunce or dullard. Eventually, the somewhat derogatory, but endearing, term for the children was transferred to the food that they ate.[6]

In 1923, Alejandro Borquez opened the Sonora Cafe in Los Angeles, which later changed its name to El Cholo Spanish Cafe.[11] Burritos first appeared on American restaurant menus at the El Cholo Spanish Cafe in Los Angeles during the 1930s.[12] Burritos were mentioned in the U.S. media for the first time in 1934,[13] appearing in the Mexican Cookbook, a collection of regional recipes from New Mexico that was written by historian Erna Fergusson.[14] In 1956, a frozen burrito was developed in Southern California.[15]

  CONROE TX

CHURROS

churro (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈtʃuro]Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈʃuʁu]) is a fried-dough pastry—predominantly choux—based snack. Churros are traditional in Spain and Portugal, from where they originate, as well as the Philippines and Ibero-America. They are also consumed in the Southwestern United StatesFrance and other areas that have received immigration from Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries. In Spain, churros can either be thin (and sometimes knotted) or long and thick, where they are known as porras in some regions. They are normally eaten for breakfast dipped in champurradohot chocolatedulce de leche or café con leche. Sugar is often sprinkled on top

History

The origin of churros is unclear. One theory suggests they were brought to Europe from China by the Portuguese. The Portuguese sailed for the Orient and, as they returned from Ming Dynasty China to Portugal, they brought along with them new culinary techniques, including altering dough for youtiao, also known as yóuzháguǐ in southern China, for Portugal. The new pastry soon crossed the border into Spain, where it was modified to have the dough extruded through a star-shaped die rather than pulled.[1]

Another theory is that the churro was made by Spanish shepherds, to substitute for fresh bakery goods. Churro paste was easy to make and fry in an open fire in the mountains, where shepherds spend most of their time.[2][3]

Preparation

Churros in Guatemala

File:Churro-Vendor.ogv

street vendor in Colombia making churros

Churros are fried until they become crunchy, and may be sprinkled with sugar. The surface of a churro is ridged due to having been piped from a churrera, a syringe-like tool with a star-shaped nozzle. Churros are generally prisms in shape, and may be straight, curled or spirally twisted.

Like pretzels, churros are sold by street vendors, who may fry them freshly on the street stand and sell them hot. In Spain and much of Latin America, churros are available in cafes for breakfast, although they may be eaten throughout the day as a snack. Specialized churrerías can be found in the form of a shop or a trailer during the holiday period. In addition, countries like SpainPeruVenezuela and Colombia have churrerías throughout their streets. In Portugal, they are commonly eaten at carnivals, fairs and other celebrations, where they are made freshly at street stands.

The dough is a mixture of flour, water and salt. Some versions are made of potato dough.

Variations

In Seville (Andalusia), the name “calientes” or “calentitos de rueda” is sometimes used instead of the word churro. These tend to refer to the thicker variant, called porra. Calientes are usually fried in the shape of a continuous spiral and cut into portions afterwards. The center of the spiral is thicker and softer, and for many a delicacy in itself. The standard “churro” is also sold under the name “calentitos de papas“, the name referring to the softer mashed potato–like texture.[4][5][6]

In parts of Eastern Andalusia, a much thinner dough is used, which does not allow for the typical ridges to be formed on the surface of the churro. The final result therefore has a smooth surface, and is more pliable and of a slightly thinner diameter than standard Spanish churros. Another difference is that sugar is never sprinkled on them, because the flavour is not considered suitable.

Filled, straight churros are found in Cuba (with fruit, such as guava), Brazil (with chocolate, doce de leite, among others), and in ArgentinaBoliviaPeruChile and Mexico (usually filled with dulce de leche or cajeta but also with chocolate and vanilla). In Colombia and Venezuela, churros are glazed with arequipe and sweetened condensed milk. In Spain, a considerably wider diameter is used to accommodate the filling. In Uruguay, churros can also come in a savoury version, filled with melted cheese.

Churros in American theme parks and street fairs are most often rolled in cinnamon sugar or other flavored sugars.

BURGERS

Hamburger
RedDot Burger.jpg

A Hamburger

Hamburgers are sold at fast-food restaurantsdiners, and specialty and high-end restaurants (where burgers may sell for several times the cost of a fast-food burger, but may be one of the cheaper options on the menu). There are many international and regional variations of the hamburger.

Hamburgers are usually a feature of fast food restaurants. The hamburgers served in major fast food establishments are usually mass-produced in factories and frozen for delivery to the site.[30] These hamburgers are thin and of uniform thickness, differing from the traditional American hamburger prepared in homes and conventional restaurants, which is thicker and prepared by hand from ground beef. Most American hamburgers are round, but some fast-food chains, such as Wendy’s, sell square-cut hamburgers. Hamburgers in fast food restaurants are usually grilled on a flat-top, but some firms, such as Burger King, use a gas flame grilling process. At conventional American restaurants, hamburgers may be ordered “rare”, but normally are served medium-well or well-done for food safety reasons. Fast food restaurants do not usually offer this option.

The McDonald’s fast-food chain sells the Big Mac, one of the world’s top selling hamburgers, with an estimated 550 million sold annually in the United States.[31] Other major fast-food chains, including Burger King (also known as Hungry Jack’s in Australia), A&WCulver’sWhataburgerCarl’s Jr./Hardee’s chain, Wendy’s (known for their square patties), Jack in the BoxCook OutHarvey’sShake ShackIn-N-Out BurgerFive GuysFatburger, Vera’s, BurgervilleBack Yard BurgersLick’s HomeburgerRoy RogersSmashburger, and Sonic also rely heavily on hamburger sales. Fuddruckers and Red Robin are hamburger chains that specialize in the mid-tier “restaurant-style” variety of hamburgers.

Some restaurants offer elaborate hamburgers using expensive cuts of meat and various cheeses, toppings, and sauces. One example is the Bobby’s Burger Palace chain founded by well-known chef and Food Network star Bobby Flay.

Hamburgers are often served as a fast dinner, picnic or party food and are often cooked outdoors on barbecue grills.

In Finland, hamburgers are sometimes served in buns made of ryeinstead of wheat.

A high-quality hamburger patty is made entirely of ground (minced) beef and seasonings; these may be described as “all-beef hamburger” or “all-beef patties” to distinguish them from inexpensive hamburgers made with cost-savers like added flourtextured vegetable proteinammonia treated defatted beef trimmings (which the company Beef Products Inc, calls “lean finely textured beef”),[32][33] advanced meat recovery, or other fillers. In the 1930s ground liverwas sometimes added. Some cooks prepare their patties with binders like eggs or breadcrumbs. Seasonings may include salt and pepper and others like as parsleyonionssoy sauceThousand Island dressingonion soup mix, or Worcestershire sauce. Many name brand seasoned salt products are also used.1235 N LOOP 336 WEST CONROE TX 77301  THANKS TO WIKIPEDIA.

BIPOLAR

What Is Bipolar Disorder?

Bipolar disorder is a complex disorder that likely stems from a combination of genetic and non-genetic factors. The mood episodes associated with it involve clinical depression or mania (extreme elation and high energy) with periods of normal mood and energy in between episodes. The severity of mood episodes can range from very mild to extreme, and they can happen gradually or suddenly within a timeframe of days to weeks. When discrete mood episodes happen four or more times per year, the process is called rapid cycling. Rapid cycling should not be confused with very frequent moment-to-moment changes in mood, which can sometimes occur in people with bipolar disorder or other conditions such as borderline personality disorder.

Along with manic or depressive episodes, patients with bipolar disorder may have disturbances in thinking. They may also have distortions of perception and impairment in social functioning. THANKS TO WEB MD 1235 N LOOP 336 N CONROE TX 77301