Alzheimer’s Association

The Alzheimer’s Association was founded by Jerome H. Stone with the help of several family members in Chicago, Illinois and incorporated in April 10, 1980 as the Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association, Inc. and is a non-profit American volunteer health organization which focuses on care, support and research for Alzheimer’s disease. The Alzheimer’s Association is the largest non-profit funder of Alzheimer’s disease research. The organization has chapters and communities across the nation, with its national office located in Chicago and the public policy office in Washington D.C. Its mission is “to eliminate Alzheimer’s disease through the advancement of research; to provide and enhance care and support for all affected; and to reduce the risk of dementia through the promotion of brain health.

Jerome H. Stone founded the Alzheimer’s Association with the help of several family support groups after meeting with the National Institute on Aging in 1979. Jerome Stone Alzheimer’s research efforts began in 1970 when his wife was first diagnosed with the disease. During the 1970’s there was very few information available about the Alzheimer’s disease. Only a few support groups existed at the time.  Through his research efforts he joined with seven independent groups who wanted to form a national organization. The groups consisted of researchers, physicians, caregivers and other humanitarians. Together they held their first official meeting on December 4,1979 to discuss solutions for the need for Alzheimer’s information, care, and cure for the disease. 

The Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association was incorporated on April 10, 1980. In that year, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) invested $13 million in Alzheimer’s disease research. In 1982, President Ronald Reagan designated the first National Alzheimer’s Disease Awareness Week. With sub-chapters being founded nationwide, the organization launched its own research programs.

Rita Hayworth Galas

In 1980 actress and dancer Rita Hayworth was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease, which contributed to her death in 1987 at the age of 68. The public disclosure and discussion of her illness drew international attention to Alzheimer’s disease, a disease that had been virtually forgotten by the medical community since its discovery in 1906, and helped to greatly increase public and private funding for Alzheimer’s disease research. The Rita Hayworth Gala, a benefit for the Alzheimer’s Association, is held annually in Chicago and New York City.The program was founded in May 1985 by Princess Yasmin Aga Khan, in honor of her mother.

A Night at Sardi’s

Started in 1992 by Laurie Burrows Grad in memory of her father writer/director and Pulitzer Prize winner Abe Burrows who died from Alzheimer’s disease, A Night at Sardi’s was an evening of entertainment that has raised over $28 million to address this rapidly growing health crisis. The benefit originally chaired by Burrows Grad and her husband, Peter Grad, was held for the last time on March 9, 2016, and raised over 1.5 million dollars. This 24th and final “A Night at Sardi’s” was chaired by Burrows Grad, James Burrows and Nicholas Grad, honoring and paying tribute to Laurie’s late husband with the Philanthropy Award.

Blondes vs. Brunettes/RivALZ

Blondes vs. Brunettes Powderpuff football games were started by Sara Allen Abbott whose father, Texas State Representative Joseph Hugh Allen, died of Alzheimer’s disease in 2008. Looking for a way to raise funds for the Alzheimer’s Association, Abbott organized a powder puff football game in tribute to her father, a lifelong football fan. The game is now played in 16 cities and Abbott has received national recognition for her efforts in raising over $2 million for the Alzheimer’s Association.

In 2014, “Blondes vs. Brunettes” grew into “RivALZ”.

Advocacy Forum

The Alzheimer’s Association Advocacy Forum is an annual gathering that takes place in the spring in Washington D.C. The multi-day event includes training sessions, celebrity guests, banquets, multi-media experiences and topical presentations focusing on Alzheimer’s disease policy-making and legislation. The feature of the event is a lobby day during which time attendees conduct meetings with members of Congress on Capitol Hill. Past guest speakers and attendees include Seth RogenSoleil Moon-FryeDavid Hyde PierceLisa Genova, political commentators Frank Luntz and Charlie Cook and members of Congress.

Paint the Night Purple

This is an annual winter fundraiser that is hosted by the Alzheimer’s Association Illinois Junior Board. It brings together young professionals from across Chicago, this event includes live entertainment, and a silent auction, where all proceeds are gifted back to the charity. Just recently ending their 5th annual fundraiser, this is the Junior Board’s largest and longest running fundraiser.

Photo from Walk to End Alzheimer’s in Lansing, Michigan.

Walk to End Alzheimer’s

The Walk to End Alzheimer’s is the world’s largest event, hosted by The Alzheimer’s Association, to bring awareness to Alzheimer’s care. This even is held once a year in over 600 communities nationwide, brings together people of different ages, backgrounds and

relationships to the disease to join the battle to fight against the disease.

In 2000, the Alzheimer’s Association anticipated establishing and running the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference (AAIC) and has made improvements in attendance, conceptual submissions and research-based presentations, and media relationships. The purpose of the AAIC is to join researchers together from all around the globe to report and converse about innovative research and data on the source, findings, cure, and prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and associated illnesses. The AAIC is held annually and is the world’s only largest forum for sharing research regarding the dementia research community.

They create thousands of nonconcrete submissions and hold more than 2,000 scientific meetings to touch the millions of people affected by Alzheimer’s with the use of print newspapers, radio broadcasting, and television newscast exposure. The AAIC has gained news coverage from ABC, the BBC, CBS, CNN, NBC, the Associated Press, Reuters, Good Morning America, The Wall Street JournalThe Washington PostUSA Today, and the customs of the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference on Alzheimer’s Disease (ICAD), the AAIC attempts to gather authority figures from more than 70 different countries to network and converse the most current dementia research outcomes and ideas in 2018.

Established in 2010, the Alzheimer’s Impact Movement (AIM) is a registered 501 advocacy organization that works in partnership with the Alzheimer’s Association.AIM is a membership organization that is non-partisan, non-profit, and their objective is to make Alzheimer’s disease a national importance. AIM supports policies designed to find an end to Alzheimer’s disease through improved investments in research, enhanced care and support, and the advancement of methods designed to decrease the chance of developing dementia.AIM and the Alzheimer’s Association offers a 24/7 helpline to provide advice, information, and support for those living with Alzheimer’s disease, their caretakers, medical experts, and the community. AIM is a sister organization of the Alzheimer’s Association, which has a voluntary and non-partisan political action committee, AIMPAC. AIMPAC is the political side of AIM, their goal is to inform members of Congress about the serious problems of Alzheimer’s disease with the help of the main concerns of the Alzheimer’s Association.

During the 2015 and 2016 United States Presidential primary season, AIM supporters pressured each of the candidates for their individual ideas to end Alzheimer’s. In the 2016 Presidential Election, AIM and the Alzheimer’s Association distributed a national voter survey and results showed that 73 million voters in America knew someone close to them with Alzheimer’s disease.

When an organization is affiliated with the national Alzheimer’s Association, they become responsible for paying dues. The dues go to the national chapter (Alzheimer’s Association of Chicago). The Alzheimer’s Association of Chicago can take up for 40% of revenue per year from each chapter affiliated with them.Currently, the funding for Alzheimer’s research at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is below $1.4 billion each year.Due to charitable funding, the Alzheimer’s Association International Research Grant Program, has devoted over $385 million dollars to over 2,500 best-of-field grant propositions, creating field-changing improvements. The Alzheimer’s Association has funded more than $375 million dollars in committed research assignments around the world and given $12 million to researchers in Illinois.

In 2015, it was in the talks for over 56 independent Alzheimer’s related associations would come together under one roof- that roof being of The Alzheimer’s Association of Chicago. The Alzheimer’s Association of Chicago is the home base for a majority of Alzheimer’s related charities across the nation. The Alzheimer’s Association of Chicago has had reoccurring speculations of issues pertaining to money allocation. This has been picked up by local Chicago news sources like the Chicago Tribune. A possible disaffiliation with national chapter might be beneficial for its growth. It would essentially be breaking apart from itself into two separate organizations- one local and one national.The local would have to start fresh, unlike the San Dieigo association that was an already established stand alone association that became affiliated to its national peer.

Image result for alzheimer association

Since the Alzheimer’s Association was founded the number of chapters has consolidated from 221 chapters in 1993 to 56 independent chapters now. Within those 56 chapters only 27 of them have agreed to unify under the national association. Prior to the vote, there had been previous chapters that chose to breakaway from the national association due to the high fees required from the national association. North Carolina’s chapter was one of four chapters that had departed in the past nine years. The chapter’s executive director, Alice Watkins, admitted that following the breakaway, the chapter had faced trouble fundraising but has since begun to settle overall making the breakaway the right decision for the charter to make. Since spending on Alzheimer’s research has decreased at the national level despite the increase of money acquired through the high fees from independent chapters, the remaining independent chapters remain resistant to consolidate. The chapters have no real input about how the money is used through the consolidation plan, and are only given advisory roles at the national level despite being active participants in the fundraising.

The Alzheimer’s Association has partaken in many opportunities to assist in diagnosing and treating Alzheimer’s Disease. In 1987 the Alzheimer’s Association teamed up with the NIA and Warner-Lambert Pharmaceutical Company (now known as Pfizer) and helped launch and recruit participants for clinical trials of the first drug to specifically target symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease. In 1995, the Alzheimer’s Association funded the development of a mouse model of a rare neurodegenerative disorder, thus laying down the technical foundation for Alzheimer’s mouse models. In 2003, the Alzheimer’s Association partnered with the NIA in finding participants for the National Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Study in order to identify Alzheimer’s risk in genes.

In 2004, researchers shared their first findings on an imaging agent called Pittsburg Compound B (PIB), a major potential breakthrough in disease monitoring and early detection that the Alzheimer’s Association provided significant support to. In that same year, the Alzheimer’s Association joined-in to sponsor the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, a nationwide study that aims to create a standardized method for obtaining and interpreting brain images.In 2005, the Alzheimer’s Association launched “Alzheimer’s & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association in hopes to further support a worldwide, interdisciplinary exchange within the Alzheimer’s research community.In 2008, in hopes to maintain or improve the cognitive performance of adults, the Alzheimer’s Association and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched the Healthy Brain Initiative. In that same year, the Alzheimer’s Association created the International Society to Advance Alzheimer’s Research and Treatment (ISTAART). In 2011, three workgroups brought together by the Alzheimer’s Association and the NIA updated the information and guidelines for diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease and came up with research criteria to define a new preclinical stage


1235 N Loop 336 west

Conroe  TX 77301

how to dance bachata

A simple, sensuous dance originating from the Dominican Republic, the colorful roots of Bachata are reflected in its romantic motions and accompanying music. Today, this passionate form of dance is popular all over Latin America and beyond. Bachata is relatively easy for learners and allows dance masters plenty of freedom to flaunt their skills.


Hold your partner. In Bachata, there are two basic positions for holding your partner – open position and closed position. Open position puts more space between the two partners, as they make contact only through their hands. Open position allows more space and flexibility when it comes to advanced moves like turns. Closed position, on the other hand, is somewhat more intimate, as it involves an arm draped across the lady’s back and slight-to-strong contact between the two partners’ bodies. Closed position is more common in modern clubs and dance halls owing to cramped floor space. See below for instructions on both positions:

  • Gentlemen:
    • For open position, keep your arms loose and relaxed. Offer your lady partner both palms, facing up. She’ll gently place her hands in yours – allow them to rest there. Don’t grab with your thumbs. Both your and your partners’ elbows should be bent at your sides, which will put your bodies about a foot or two apart.
    • For closed position, wrap your arm around your lady’s body so that your palm is resting roughly in the middle of her back. She will drape her arm over yours, resting her hand near your shoulder. Using your unoccupied arm (which is called your “leading arm”), hold her other hand out to the side at about shoulder or chest height, keeping both of your elbows bent. Don’t interlock fingers – your hands should be held palm-on-palm, with the back of your hand facing out. As you dance, use your outstretched hand to lead your partner, gently guiding her upper body in the direction you’re moving.
  • Ladies:
    • For open position, keep your arms loose and relaxed. Lay your hands palms-down in your partner’s. Remember to keep your elbows bent to allow flexibility and ensure you’re somewhat close to your partner.
    • For closed position, when your partner wraps his arm around your back, lay your arm over his and rest it near his shoulder. Allow your partner to hold your other hand – the back of your hand should be facing towards you, while the back of his should be facing out. Keep your elbows bent and remember to keep a palm-palm hand hold (don’t interlock fingers).
    • 3

      Step with your partner. Practice simply moving in time to the music with your partner. You may find that coordinating your movements so that you both step on the beat is harder than you first thought! Regardless of whether you’re in open or closed position, both partners perform basically the same “left four beats, right four beats” motion described above. However, realize that, since both partners are facing each other, one partner will be stepping in the opposite direction as described.

      • Traditionally, in bachata, the man leads, so, if you’re a lady, you can just follow in the direction of his motion, whether that means stepping to the right or to the left first.
      • 4

        Incorporate back-and-forth motion. As your bachata skill improves and you begin dancing with partners, you’ll want to move away from the basic left-and-right bachata steps and towards a more advanced, versatile step pattern that uses back-and-forth movements as well. These back and forth movements are done almost identically to the left-and-right movements – in other words, you’ll step forward three beats and pop your hips on beat four, then step backward 3 beats and pop your hips on beat four, lather, rinse, and repeat. As the leading partner steps forward, the following partner steps back with the corresponding foot.

        • For beginners, try moving through the basic left-and-right bachata steps twice, then doing a back-and-forth motion twice, then switching back to the left-and-right motion and repeating. Your steps should be as follows:
          • (To the left) 1, 2, 3, (4) (To the right) 1, 2, 3, (4), (To the left) 1, 2, 3, (4) (To the right) 1, 2, 3, (4)
          • (To the front) 1, 2, 3, (4), (To the back) 1, 2, 3, (4), (To the front) 1, 2, 3, (4), (To the back) 1, 2, 3, (4)
          • (To the left) 1, 2, 3, (4), (To the right)… and so on.
        • Note – because, in traditional bachata, the male partner leads, the (to the front) direction refers to his point of view. The female (or following) partner will step backas the leading partner steps forward, and vice versa.
        • 5

          Add turns. One of the most essential partner moves done in bachata is the turn. In the most basic variation of this move, the male partner raises his arm, allowing the woman to complete a full turn in time to the music, then both partners return to normal dancing without missing a beat. Follow the instructions below to do a basic turn:

          • Gentlemen – As you dance, mentally count out the beat (1, 2, 3, 4). On beat 4, begin to raise your leading arm over your partner’s head and begin to release your other arm’s grip (as a reminder, in closed position, the leading arm is the outstretched one, rather than the one wrapped around your partner’s back). On beat 1 of the next measure, your partner will begin to turn in a circle under your arm, gently holding on to your leading arm as she does so. She will finish turning on beat 3 so that on beat 4 you’ll both be dancing in sync again and you’ll be able to move together in the opposite direction on the next beat 1.
          • Ladies – feel your partner’s leading arm begin to rise on beat 4. Keep holding onto your partner’s leading arm, but release your grip on your partner’s shoulder with your other arm and move under the curve of his leading arm. On beat 1, start to turn in a circle under his leading arm. Try to finish turning on beat 3 so that you can hit beat 4 in the “normal” dancing position and step together in the opposite direction on beat 1.
          • 6

            Pay attention to your partner. Above all else, bachata is supposed to be a way for two people to have fun. Both men and women should try to give their partner their full attention. At the simplest level, this means looking at your partner while you dance, not at the floor (and especially not at other people you’d like to dance with). However, this also applies to the way you dance:

            • Pay attention to your partner’s movements. if you’re leading, make sure your partner is keeping up with you. If you’re following, try to match your partner’s directions and predict which way he’ll go next.
            • When your partner does a glamorous move like a spin or a turn, give your partner the attention s/he deserves. Generally, unless you’re doing a special synchronized two-person move, you shouldn’t do your own moves while your partner is doing his or hers.
            • 1235 N loop 336 west @ I45
            • CONROE TX 77301

Wedding of Prince Harry and Meghan Markle

Announcement of engagement

Harry and Meghan attending church on Christmas Day, 2017

Henry, Duke of Sussex, better known as Prince Harry,[3][note 2] is the second son of Charles, Prince of Wales and Diana, Princess of Wales. He and Meghan Markle, an American actress best known for her role in the American legal-drama television series Suits, have been in a relationship since June 2016. The relationship was first acknowledged on 8 November 2016, when an official statement was released from the royal family’s communications secretary addressing the “wave of abuse and harassment” directed toward Markle.[4]

On 27 November 2017, Clarence House announced that Prince Harry would marry Meghan Markle in the spring of 2018.[5] They were engaged earlier the same month in London, with the Prince giving Markle a bespoke engagement ring made by Cleave and Company, consisting of a large central diamond from Botswana, with two smaller diamonds from his mother’s jewellery collection.[6] At the same time, it was announced that they would live at Nottingham Cottage in the grounds of Kensington Palace following their marriage.[7]

The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh expressed their delight at the news, while congratulations came in from various political leaders, including the British Prime Minister, Theresa May, and the Leader of the Opposition, Jeremy Corbyn. After the announcement, the couple gave an exclusive interview to Mishal Husain of BBC News.[7]

Markle will be the second American[note 3] and the first person of mixed race heritage to marry into the British royal family.[8] The engagement announcement prompted much comment about the possible social significance of Meghan Markle becoming a proudly mixed-race royal.[9][10][11][12][13]

The Queen consented to the marriage under the Succession to the Crown Act 2013, which allows the monarch to approve or disapprove marriages of the first six persons in the line of succession. Harry was fifth in line at the time of his engagement.[14] The Queen‘s consent was declared to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom on 14 March 2018.[15]

Although Markle attended a private Catholic school in her early years, she did not identify as Roman Catholic.[16] On 6 March 2018, she was baptised and confirmed into the Church of England by the Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby at St. James’s Palace.[17] The Church no longer denies marriage to divorced persons with a living spouse.[18][19] After the engagement, Markle began the years-long process of becoming a British citizen.[20] She will retain her U.S. citizenship during the process,[21] but Kensington Palace have indicated that the decision on whether she will retain dual nationality has not yet been made.[20] The couple was invited to celebrate Christmas 2017 with the royal family at the Queen’s Sandringham estate.[22] The official engagement photographs were taken by Alexi Lubomirski, a former assistant to Mario Testino, at Frogmore House, and were issued by Kensington Palace on 21 December 2017.[23]


Mounted soldiers of the Blues and Royals (Royal Horse Guards and 1st Dragoons); the Blues and Royals, Prince Harry’s old regiment, and part of the Household Cavalry, will ride as an escort in the procession.

The wedding took place on Saturday, 19 May 2018 at St George’s Chapel, Windsor.[24] The venue was previously the site for the weddings of Prince Harry’s uncle, the Earl of Wessex, and his cousin, Peter Phillips, as well as the blessing for the marriage of the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall, Harry’s stepmother.[25]

Experts expect the wedding to cost around £500,000;[26] the royal family have announced that they will pay for the wedding.[27] The costs for the cake, the florist, and the catering have been estimated to be £50,000, £110,000, and £286,000 respectively,[28] and the overall cost is expected to be around £32 million.[29] The security costs are expected to be lower than that of the 2011 wedding of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge.[30] The municipal government in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead has reportedly spent £2.6 million on cleaning the town and roads.[30] It has also been predicted that the wedding would trigger a tourism boom and boost the economy up to £500 million.[31]

The wedding dress was designed by Clare Waight Keller.[32]

The British government decided that the wedding day would not be a bank holiday, as was done for the wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton.[33] The wedding was on the same date as the FA Cup Final, which Prince Harry’s brother William normally attends in his role as President of the Football Association.[34] Holding the royal wedding on a weekend is a break with the royal tradition of having weddings on a weekday.[35] On 12 February 2018, Kensington Palace announced that the ceremony will occur at 12:00 Midday BST. Following the ceremony, there was a carriage procession through Windsor. Two receptions are bring held; the first, for those attending the ceremony, will be hosted by the Queen and will take place in St. George’s Hall after the carriage procession. A second reception at Frogmore House, for family and close friends and hosted by the Prince of Wales, will occur later in the day.[36]

The wedding cake is a layered lemon and elderflower cake and decorated with peonies in shades of white and cream.[37] The cake designer Claire Ptak based in London was chosen in March 2018.[38]

Approximately 250 members of the British Armed Forces were involved in the wedding, the majority coming from units that have a connection with Prince Harry:[39]

Wedding party

On 26 April 2018, Kensington Palace announced that Prince Harry had selected his older brother, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, as best man.[40][41] There was initially no confirmation as to whether Prince William would miss the FA Cup Final, which he would normally attend in his role as President of The Football Association, or if he would be able to attend both the wedding and the football. A statement from Kensington Palace that the timing of the wedding would not clash with the match was released in December 2017.[42] However, it was confirmed in March that the Duke would not be attending the final that day.[43]

There were suggestions that the bride’s friend Jessica Mulroney would be her maid of honour.[44][45] In early May 2018, there was confirmation that there would be no maid of honour, and that the bridesmaids and page boys would all be children.[46] A total of ten bridesmaids and page boys were chosen, with the bride and groom each selecting five: two of Meghan Markle’s godchildren, seven-year old Rylan Ritt and her six-year old sister Remi, as well as Brian, John and Ivy Mulroney, the three children of her friend Jessica Mulroney, were chosen by the bride, while Prince Harry’s niece and nephew, Princess Charlotte of Cambridge and Prince George of Cambridge, as well as his godchildren Florence van Cutsem, Zalie Warren and Jasper Dyer, were selected by the groom.[47][48]

On 18 May 2018, Kensington Palace announced Prince Charles would accompany Meghan Markle down the aisle, after she confirmed her father, Thomas Markle, would not be attending the wedding due to heart surgery.[49][50] The bride spent the night before the wedding at Cliveden House along with her mother, while the groom stayed at Coworth Park Hotel with his brother.[51][52] Markle made her way to the church accompanied by her mother.[53]

Wedding service

From 8.00 am, the public started to arrive at the grounds of Windsor Castle. The main congregation and the guests all arrived at the abbey at 9.30 am followed by members of the Royal Family. The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh were the last members of the Royal Family to depart for the ceremony, as is tradition, arriving at the church at 11.52 am.[54] Shortly after, Markle arrived with the party of junior attendants. She proceeded down the aisle followed by the attendants, where the Prince of Wales met her to escort her through the quire. He accompanied her to the altar, where Prince Harry was standing.[55][56]

Prince Harry’s aunt, Baroness Fellowes, sister of Harry’s mother the late Diana, Princess of Wales, delivered a reading. The Dean of Windsor, David Conner, conducted the service with the Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby, performing the marriage ceremony. The sermon was delivered by The Most Reverend Michael Curry, presiding bishop and primate of the Episcopal Church (the American member church of the Anglican Communion).[36][57] Curry’s address emphasised the redemptive property of love.[58] The Queen’s chaplain, The Reverend Prebendary Rose Hudson-Wilkin, and the Coptic Orthodox Archbishop of London, Anba Angaelos offered the prayers.[59]

In the marriage vows, the couple promised to “to love and to cherish” each other.[60] This was sealed by the exchange of rings.[60] After the signing of the registers, Harry and Meghan walked down the aisle, pausing briefly to bow and curtsey to the Queen.[61] They were followed in procession by other members of the bridal party, and their families.[60]


Two choirs, an orchestra and fanfare trumpeters provided music for the service. The orchestra was made up of musicians from the BBC National Orchestra of Wales, the English Chamber Orchestra and the Philharmonia Orchestra. In addition to the Choir of St George’s Chapel, the Kingdom Choir, a gospel group, also sang, while the State Trumpeters of the Household Cavalry gave a fanfare. The State Trumpeters included Kate Sandford, thus making her the first female state trumpeter at a British royal wedding.[62] The music was under the overall direction of James Vivian, the chapel’s Organist and Director of Music; the Kingdom Choir was conducted by Karen Gibson, and the orchestra was conducted by Christopher Warren-Green.[63][64]

Music during the service included “Eternal source of light divine” (from the Ode for the Birthday of Queen Anne) by George Frederick Handel; the motet “If ye love me” by Thomas Tallis; the song “Stand by me” by Jerry Leiber, Mike Stoller and Ben E. King, arranged for choir by Mark Delisser; and “The Lord bless you and keep you” by John Rutter. Works performed during the signing of the register included Sicilienne by Maria Theresia von Paradis, Après un rêve by Gabriel Fauré and Ave Maria by Franz Schubert (soloist was the cellist Sheku Kanneh-Mason). During the procession, the musicians performed the Allegro from Symphony no. 1 in B-flat by William Boyce and “This Little Light of Mine” by Etta James, Jester Hairston and Harry Dixon Loes.[65]


In April 2018, it was announced that an “official list” of domestic and international political leaders was not required for the wedding and that Prime Minister Theresa May, Leader of the Opposition Jeremy Corbyn, and other leaders would not attend the ceremony. President of the United States Donald Trump and former President Barack Obama were also not invited.[66] This is in contrast to the wedding of Prince Harry’s elder brother, which had a large number of such guests due to his position as a future monarch.[67] The decision not to invite political leaders to the wedding was taken in part because of the limitations of the venue, and also took into account Prince Harry’s position as sixth in line to the throne.[67]

With a smaller ceremony and reception at St George’s Hall, the guest list included approximately 600 people, most of whom have a “direct relationship” with the couple.[68] Also, 200 close friends of the couple were invited to attend the evening reception at Frogmore House.[1] Approximately 1,200 members of the public were invited to greet the couple outside the chapel in the grounds of Windsor Castle.[68] The invitees outside the chapel were “people from charities, Windsor Castle community members, people from the royal households and the Crown Estate, and local school children.”[69]

Sarah, Duchess of York, the former wife of Prince Andrew, was invited to the wedding even though she had not been invited to the weddings of Prince William and Catherine Middleton in 2011, Peter Phillips and Autumn Kelly in 2008 or Zara Phillips and Mike Tindall in 2011. However, she was not invited to the evening reception at Frogmore House hosted by Prince Charles and was reportedly “deeply upset” by her omission.[70]

Amongst the non-royal guests were Meghan’s Suits co-stars Patrick J. Adams (with wife Troian Bellisario), Gabriel Macht, Sarah Rafferty, Gina Torres and Abigail Spencer, actors George Clooney (with wife Amal Clooney) and Idris Elba, actresses Oprah Winfrey, Priyanka Chopra and Carey Mulligan, Late Show host James Corden, tennis player Serena Williams (with husband Alexis Ohanian), David and Victoria Beckham, musicians Elton John, James Blunt, Joss Stone and Marcus Mumford, and rugby players Jonny Wilkinson and James Haskell. Harry’s ex-girlfriends Cressida Bonas and Chelsy Davy were in attendance as well.[71][72][73][74]

Charitable donations

In April 2018, the couple requested that, rather than sending wedding gifts, people should make a charitable donation. They announced a list of seven organisations, none of which they had a formal association with, that they had nominated to benefit from such donations:[75][76]

  • CHIVA (Children’s HIV Association): The small charity supports more than 1,000 young people living with HIV in the UK and Ireland.
  • Crisis: The national homeless body works with thousands of people a year to help rebuild their lives.
  • The Myna Mahila Foundation: The organisation, based in Mumbai, helps empower women through offering stable employment and breaking cultural taboos around menstrual hygiene. Myna Mahila also teaches women life skills such as maths, English and self defence.
  • Scotty’s Little Soldiers: The charity supports children who have lost a parent while serving in the British Armed Forces.
  • StreetGames: The organisation uses sport to help young people and communities become healthier and safer.
  • Surfers Against Sewage: The national marine conservation body works to protect oceans, beaches, waves and wildlife.
  • The Wilderness Foundation UK: Vulnerable teenagers from urban communities are taught about the great outdoors and rural employment opportunities.


Coverage of the royal wedding was shown on BBC One, ITV, Sky News and E! (Europe) in the UK.[77] In the United States coverage aired on CBS, NBC, ABC, E!, PBS, BBC America, TLC, FOX, and HBO.[78] CBC will broadcast the programme in Canada, while TVNZ screened it in New Zealand along with SBS and Nine in Australia.[77][79] The wedding was also streamed live online on YouTube via the British Monarchy‘s official The Royal Channel.[80]

Huw Edwards hosted coverage for BBC TV with Desert Island Discs host Kirsty Young and BBC Radio 2 DJ Dermot O’Leary. The BBC Radio coverage was co-hosted by Chris Evans and Scarlett Moffatt.[81] Phillip Schofield and Julie Etchingham hosted coverage for ITV.[82] Kay Burley, Anna Botting and Alastair Bruce, among others, hosted coverage for Sky.[83] CBS’s coverage began at 4 a.m. EST with CBS Presents “The Royal Wedding”.[84] Gayle King provided commentary during the broadcast. ABC began its coverage at 5 a.m. EST with a special edition of Good Morning America.[85] NBC aired the ceremony at 4:30 a.m. EST with a special edition of The Today Show.[86] The pay subscription network HBO hosted a live broadcast titled “The Royal Wedding Live with Cord and Tish!” starting at 7:30 a.m. EST.[87] The parody hosts were Cord Hosenbeck and Tish Cattigan, the alter egos of actors Will Ferrell and Molly Shannon. BBC America provided a live and simulcast of BBC ONE’s coverage, albeit with limited commercial breaks.[88]

It also aired on the Republic of Ireland‘s national broadcaster RTÉ, despite the fact that the British royals no longer rule over that part of Ireland.[89] Sinn Féin TD John Brady said “As an Irish Republican living in a so called ‘Republic’ I totally oppose RTE using my TV license money to broadcast the wedding of a privileged English monarch [sic].”[90] Senator Niall Ó Donnghaile also spoke against the broadcast. A group called “Anti Imperialist Action Ireland” also opposed the broadcast, saying “the decision by RTÉ to broadcast the wedding live is part of a wider agenda to portray the struggle for Irish National Liberation as finished, and to present the relationship between Ireland and Britain as a normal one […] the illegal presence of British Imperialism in Ireland will continue to be resisted and Irish Socialist Republicans are committed to challenging and smashing the Normalisation agenda.”[91] RTÉ defended its decision, citing “huge public interest” and that the coverage was being provided for free.[92]

QUOTES101 Stay Strong Quotes To Inspire You to Never Give Up

Stay Strong Quotes for Inspiration

1. “When we see beyond pain & find ourselves in others we learn to love at the deepest level.” – Jason Garner

2. “Accept what is, let go of what was, and have faith in what will be.” – Sonia Ricotti

3. “Fall seven times, stand up eight.” – Japanese Proverb

4. “If you believe it will work out, you’ll see opportunities. If you believe it won’t, you will see obstacles.” – Wayne Dyer

5. “I am two of the most powerful words; for what you put after them shapes your reality.” – Bevan Lee

6. “No matter how hard the battle gets or no matter how many people DON’T believe in your dream,Never give up!” – Eric Thomas

7. “I am not what happened to me, I am what I choose to become.” – Carl Jung

8. “If someone is strong enough to bring you down, show them you are strong enough to get back up.” – Unknown

9. “I am thankful for all of those who said NO to me. Its because of them I’m doing it myself.” – Albert Einstein

10. “We all have great inner power. The power is self-faith. There’s really an attitude to winning. You have to see yourself winning before you win. And you have to be hungry. You have to want to conquer.” – Arnold Schwarzenegger

11. “Worry is a total waste of time. It doesn’t change anything. All is does it steal your joy and keep you very busy doing nothing.” – Lionel Willard

12. “I believe that tomorrow is another day and I believe in miracles.” – Audrey Hepburn

13. “One day your life will flash before your eyes. Make sure it’s worth watching.” – Gerard Way

14. “Never give up on something that you can’t go a day without thinking about.” – Winston Churchill

15. “Success is what happens after you have survived all your mistakes.” – Anora Lee

16. “The trick is to enjoy life. Don’t wish away your days, waiting for better ones ahead.” – Marjorie Pay Hinckley

17. “Never give up on something you really want. It’s difficult to wait, but more difficult to regret.” – Unknown

18. “Feeling fear is human, but conquering it will make you feel empowered, courageous, and proud.” – Alex Niles

19. “Forgive yourself for not being where you thought you would be by now.” – Terri Cole

20. “Work hard for what you want because it wont come to you without a fight. You have to be strong and courageous and know that you can do anything you put your mind to. If somebody puts you down or criticizes you, just keep on believing in yourself and turn it into something positive.” – Leah LaBelle

21. “When it comes to your dreams, every risk is worth it.” – Joel Brown

22. “Your value doesn’t decrease based on someone’s inability to see your worth.” – Unknown

23. “The harder the struggle, the more glorious the triumph. Self-realization demands very great struggle.” – Swami Sivananda

24. “No matter how hard the past, you can always begin again.” – Buddha

25. “You Were Given This Life Because You Are Strong Enough To Live it.” – Unknown

26. “If you’re going through hell, keep going.” – Winston Churchill

27. “Change the changeable. Accept the unchangeable. And remove yourself from the unacceptable.” – Denis Waitley

28. “The best advice I can give to anyone going through a rough patch is to never be afraid to ask for help.” – Demi Lovato

29. “Be strong, things will get better. It might be stormy now, but rain doesn’t last forever.” – Unknown

30. “Be nice to yourself. It’s hard to be happy when someone is mean to you all the time.” – Christine Arylo

31. “Most of the important things in the world have been accomplished by people who have kept on trying when there seemed to be no hope at all.” – Dale Carnegie

32. “The happiest people don’t have the best of everything, they just make the best of everything they have.” – Judith May

33. “Small minds can’t comprehend big spirits. To be great, you have to be willing to be mocked, hated and misunderstood. Stay strong.” – Unknown

34. “How people treat you is their karma; how you react is yours.” – Wayne Dyer

35. “What makes you different or weird, that’s your strength.” – Meryl Streep

36. “Every master was once a disaster.” – David T.S Wood

37. “Stay strong, keep them wondering how you’re still smiling.” – Unknown


never giving up stay strong 

38. “Attitude is a little thing that makes a big difference.” – Winston Churchill

39. “The secret of change is to focus all of your energy, not on fighting the old, but on building the new.” – Socrates

40. “Remember that guy that gave up? Well, Neither does anybody else.” – Unknown

41. “When you come to the end of your rope, tie a knot and hang on.” – Franklin D. Roosevelt

42. “Remember: There are years that ask questions, and years that answer.” – Zora Neale Hurston

43. “You can’t start the next chapter of your life if you keep re-reading the last one.” – Unknown

44. “Stop focusing on how stressed you are and remember how blessed you are. It could be so much worse.” – Alyse Huller

45. “Remind yourself that it’s okay not to be perfect.” – Unknown

46. “No one has the power to shatter your dreams unless you give it to them.” – Maeve Greyson

47. “Dealing with backstabbers there was one thing I learned. They’re only powerful when you got your back turned. Don’t let them get you down.” – Eminem

48. “People are always blaming their circumstances for what they are. I don’t believe in circumstances. The people who get on in this world are the people who get up and look for the circumstances they want, and if they can’t find them, make them.” – George Bernard Shaw

49. “The road to success is dotted with many tempting parking places. Don’t stop!” – Unknown

50. “He conquers who endures.” – Persius

51. “Change may not be easy, but it’s possible.” – Lisa Mayne

52. “When someone tells you that you can’t do something, perhaps you should consider that they are only telling you what they can’t do.” – Sheldon Cahoon

53. “Things happen to you to make you realize your true potential, strength, will power, and heart. You’ve got to have faith.” – Dr. Byron Hayes

54. “One small crack does not mean you are broken. It means you were put to the test and you didn’t fall apart.” – Linda Poindexter

55. “Be strong enough to let go, and patient enough to wait for what you deserve.” – Simone Thiel

56. “Life is like riding a bicycle. To keep your balance, you must keep moving.” – Albert Einstein

57. “Strength does not come from winning. Your struggles develop your strengths. When you go through hardships and decide not to surrender, that is true strength.” – Arnold Schwarzenegger

58. “Don’t let the fear of the time it will take to accomplish something stand in the way of your doing it. The time will pass anyway; we might just as well put that passing time to the best possible use.” – Earl Nightingale

59. “Conquer all your fears and you’ll be amazed at how awesome your life can become.” – Joel Brown

60. “Nobody trips over mountains. It is the small pebble that causes you to stumble. Pass all the pebbles in your path and you will find you have crossed the mountain.” – Unknown

61. “Life is not about how fast you run or how high you climb but how well you bounce.” – Vivian Komori

62. “If we are facing in the right direction, all we have to do is keep on walking.” – Jack Kornfield

63. “You have to learn the rules of the game. And then you have to play better than anyone else.” – Albert Einstein

64. “Successful people spend 10% of their time focused on the problems and 90% of the rest, focused on the solution.” – Tony Robbins

65. “Just Remember: To be great you have to be willing to be mocked, hated, and misunderstood. Stay strong”. – Rumah Sehat

66. “The man at the top of the mountain didn’t fall there.” – Vince Lombardi

67. “Remember: Every champion was once a contender that refused to give up. – Rocky Balboa

68. “Anyone can give up, it’s the easiest thing in the world to do. But to hold it together when everyone else would understand if you fell apart, that’s true strength.” – Unknown

69. “Successful men and women keep moving. They make mistakes, but they don’t quit.” – Conrad Hilton


never give up give love quote 

70. “The world breaks everyone, and afterward, some are strong at the broken places.” – Ernest Hemingway

71. “PUSH stands for, (P)ersistence, (U)ntil, (S)omething, (H)appens!” – Unknown

72. “Surround yourself with the dreamers and the doers, the believers and thinkers, but most of all, surround yourself with those who see the greatness within you.” – Edmund Lee

73. “Some days you’re gonna get it right and some days you;re gonna get it wrong. But no matter what, never stop trying to get it!” – Eddie Harris Jr.

74. “Don’t be afraid to fail, be afraid not to try.” – Unknown

75. “It’s okay to struggle, but it’s never okay to give up on yourself.” – John Zickefoose

76. “When you feel worried/stressed, take a deep breath so that your body feels supported by you.” – Penny Vai

77. “Don’t be discouraged. It’s often the last key in the bunch that opens the lock.” – Unknown

78. “When life is sweet, say thank you & celebrate. And when life is bitter, say thank you & grow.” – Shauna Niequest

79. “You can only grow if you’re willing to feel awkward and uncomfortable when you try something new.” – Brian Tracy

80. “Life goes by fast. Enjoy it…Everyone gets so upset about the wrong things.” – Joan Rivers

81. “If we suppress negative feelings, we do not allow for the authenticity of our human expression.” – Christian Hassler

82. “Open yourself to the possibility that you are not alone, that everyone, at some point feels the same way.” – Jason Garner

83. “The greatest weapon against stress is our ability to choose one thought over another.” – William James

84. “It’s how you view the life inside you that creates the life outside of you. Everyday.” – James Altucher

85. “Be open to change. Nothing in this world is permanent.” – Skylar Liberty

86. “I’m stronger because of the hard times, wiser because of my mistakes, and happier because I have known sadness.” – Allison Vogel

87. “If you find yourself constantly trying to prove your worth to someone, you have already forgotten your value.” – Unknown

88. “Some people come into your life as blessings. Others come into your life as lessons.” – Mother Teresa

89. “Instead of complaining that the rose bush is full of thorns, be happy the thorn bush has roses.” – Proverb

90. “The only person you are destined to become is the person you decide to be.” – Ralph Waldo Emerson

91. “Worry looks around, fear looks back, faith looks up, guilt looks down, but I look forward.” – John Carter

92. “Pain can change you, but that doesn’t mean it has to be a bad change. Take that pain and turn it into wisdom.” – The Dalai Lama

93. “Cry. Forgive. Learn. Move on. Let your tears water the seeds of your future happiness.” – Steve Maraboli

94. “Letting go isn’t the end of the world. It’s the beginning of a new life.” – Unknown

95. “Never assume that you’re stuck with the way things are. Life changes, and so can you.” – Ralph Marston

96. “Running away from your problems is a race you’ll never win. Face them head on, knowing there will be brighter days.” – Unknown

97. “Don’t close the book when bad things happen in your life! Just turn the page and start a new chapter!” – LaToya Jackson

98. “There is something you must always remember. You are braver than you believe, stronger than you seem, and smarter than you think.” – A.A. Milne

99. “Make a commitment to your self that today, success is your only options! No matter the obstacles, no matter the sacrifice! you have decided you won’t be denied, you won’t be defeated!” – Eric Thomas

100. “Sometimes the best thing you can do is not think, not wonder and not obsess. Just breathe and have faith that everything will work out for the best.” – Unknown

101. “The world is the great gymnasium where we come to make ourselves strong.” –Swami Vivekananda

101 Stay Strong Quotes To Inspire You to Never Give Up

10 Tips to Achieve Anything You Want in Life

10 Tips to Achieve Anything You Want in Life


So, here are my 10 best tips for achieving anything you want in life.

1. Focus on commitment, not motivation.

Just how committed are you to your goal? How important is it for you, and what are you willing to sacrifice in order to achieve it? If you find yourself fully committed, motivation will follow.

2. Seek knowledge, not results.

If you focus on the excitement of discovery, improving, exploring and experimenting, your motivation will always be fueled. If you focus only on results, your motivation will be like weather—it will die the minute you hit a storm. So the key is to focus on the journey, not the destination. Keep thinking about what you are learning along the way and what you can improve.

3. Make the journey fun.

It’s an awesome game! The minute you make it serious, there’s a big chance it will start carrying a heavy emotional weight and you will lose perspective and become stuck again.

4. Get rid of stagnating thoughts.

Thoughts influence feelings and feelings determine how you view your work. You have a lot of thoughts in your head, and you always have a choice of which ones to focus on: the ones that will make you emotionally stuck (fears, doubts) or the ones that will move you forward (excitement, experimenting, trying new things, stepping out of your comfort zone).

5. Use your imagination.

Next step after getting rid of negative thoughts is to use your imagination. When things go well, you are full of positive energy, and when you are experiencing difficulties, you need to be even more energetic. So rename your situation. If you keep repeating I hate my work, guess which feelings those words will evoke? It’s a matter of imagination! You can always find something to learn even from the worst boss in the world at the most boring job. I have a great exercise for you: Just for three days, think and say positive things only. See what happens.

6. Stop being nice to yourself.

Motivation means action and action brings results. Sometimes your actions fail to bring the results you want. So you prefer to be nice to yourself and not put yourself in a difficult situation. You wait for the perfect timing, for an opportunity, while you drive yourself into stagnation and sometimes even into depression. Get out there, challenge yourself, do something that you want to do even if you are afraid.

7. Get rid of distractions.

Meaningless things and distractions will always be in your way, especially those easy, usual things you would rather do instead of focusing on new challenging and meaningful projects. Learn to focus on what is the most important. Write a list of time-wasters and hold yourself accountable to not do them.

8. Don’t rely on others.

You should never expect others to do it for you, not even your partner, friend or boss. They are all busy with their own needs. No one will make you happy or achieve your goals for you. It’s all on you.

9. Plan.

Know your three steps forward. You do not need more. Fill out your weekly calendar, noting when you will do what and how. When-what-how is important to schedule. Review how each day went by what you learned and revise what you could improve.

10. Protect yourself from burnout.

It’s easy to burn out when you are very motivated. Observe yourself to recognize any signs of tiredness and take time to rest. Your body and mind rest when you schedule relaxation and fun time into your weekly calendar. Do diverse tasks, keep switching between something creative and logical, something physical and still, working alone and with a team. Switch locations. Meditate, or just take deep breaths, close your eyes, or focus on one thing for five minutes.

You lack motivation not because you are lazy or don’t have a goal. Even the biggest stars, richest businesspeople or the most accomplished athletes get lost sometimes. What makes them motivated is the curiosity about how much better or faster they can get. So above all, be curious, and this will lead you to your goals and success.

Top 10 Pecan Fun Facts

Top 10 Pecan Fun Facts


National Pecan Pie Day is July 12th.

1. The name “pecan” is a Native American word that was used to describe nuts requiring a stone to crack.

2. The pecan capital of the world is Albany, Georgia, which boasts more than 600,000 pecan trees.

3. Pecan trees are native to North America and over 80% of the world’s pecan crop comes from the United States.

4. Pecan trees only produce nuts every two years.

5. The pecan pie was created by French people who had settled in New Orleans.

6. The pecan is heart healthy and contains antioxidants, 19 vitamins and minerals and healthy fat. One of the mineral components is zinc, which is important in producing testosterone in both males and females.

7. In 1995, Georgia pecan wood was selected by the Atlanta Committee to make the handles of the torches for the 1996 Olympic Games. The torches were carried in the 15,000-mile U.S.A. relay and in the lighting of the Olympic flame in Atlanta on July 19, 1996.

8. About 78 pecans are used in the average pecan pie.

9. Pecan trees can live to be over 200 years old.

10. One ounce of pecans provides 10% of the recommended daily fiber intake.

Top 10 Pecan Fun Facts

ranch dressing

Ranch dressing is a type of salad dressing made of some combination of buttermilksaltgarliconionmustardherbs (commonly chivesparsley, and dill), and spices (commonly black pepperpaprika, and ground mustard seed), mixed into a sauce based on mayonnaise, or another oil emulsion. Sour cream and yogurt are sometimes used in addition to or as a substitute for buttermilk and mayonnaise. Ranch dressing has been the best-selling salad dressing in the United States since 1971, when it overtook Italian dressing.[1] It is also popular as a dip and flavoring for chips and other foods.

Ranch dressing is common in the United States as a dipping sauce for broccolicarrots and celery as well as a dip for chips and “bar foods” such as french fries and chicken wings. It is also a common dipping sauce for fried foods such as fried mushrooms, fried zucchini, fried picklesjalapeno poppersonion ringschicken fingers, and hushpuppies. In addition, ranch dressing is used on pizzapicklesbaked potatoeswrapstacospretzels, and hamburgers.

While popular in the United States and Canada, ranch dressing is virtually unknown in other parts of the world.

1235 North Loop 336 West Conroe Texas 77301 




Six Flags of Texas

Six Flags of Texas. Image available on the Internet and included in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.
Royal Banner of the Crown of Castile

Royal Banner of the Crown of Castile. Image available on the Internetand included in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.

FLAGS OF TEXAS. The strong Texas interest in flags is shown in public and private displays of the “Six Flags Over Texas,” i.e., the flags of the six countries that have ruled over Texas: the Kingdom of France, the Kingdom of Spain, the Mexican Federal Republic, the Republic of Texas, the Confederate States of America, and the United States of America. Spain has had four significant flags during its occupation of the New World. The royal banner of Castile and León, bearing two lions and two castles, was used as a state flag and ensign from around 1230 to around 1516. From 1516 to May 28, 1785, Spain used a state flag and ensign consisting of a modified red saltire on white to signify the house of Burgundy. A variant of the state flag and ensign 1580 to 1640 depicted the complete Spanish coat of arms on a white field. King Charles III established the familiar Spanish flag, with horizontal stripes of red-gold-red and the simple arms of Castile and León as the Spanish ensign, effective on May 28, 1785, and as the Spanish state flag on land, effective March 8, 1793. These flags were used until April 27, 1931.

Flag of the Kingdom of France

Flag of the Kingdom of France. Image available on the Internet and included in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.

The flag of France that was allegedly carried by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, was probably a plain white flag strewn with fleurs-de-lys. This flag (circa 1643 to October 31, 1790) was a simplified version of the French state flag and ensign that bore the entire arms of France on the field of fleurs-de-lys. Another French flag frequently displayed in Texas today contains three or more fleurs-de-lys on a blue field; this was the French state flag and ensign from about 1370 to about 1600.

Flag of Mexico

Flag of Mexico. Image available on the Internet and included in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.

In April 1823, Mexico adopted its first republican flag, which was used until 1863. This flag is similar to the current Mexican flag, with vertical stripes of green-white-red, representing the “Three Guarantees” of religion, independence, and union. Both flags show an eagle holding a serpent in its mouth and standing on a nopal, or cactus, but the current Mexican flag depicts a stylized Aztec eagle rather than the more natural eagle in the 1823 flag. The eagle and serpent represent the tradition that the Aztecs were to make their permanent settlement where they saw a snake being eaten by an eagle standing on a nopal growing from a rock in the middle of water. Legend has it that the Aztecs saw this omen at Lake Tenochtitlán, the site of the future Mexico City.

Stephen F. Austin's Flag Design

Stephen F. Austin’s Flag Design. Courtesy of the Texas State Library and Archives Commission. Image available on the Internet and included in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.
Stephen F. Austin's Proposed Texas Flag

Stephen F. Austin’s Proposed Texas Flag. Image available on the Internet and included in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.
William Wharton's Flag Design

William Wharton’s Flag Design. Courtesy of the Texas State Library and Archives Commission. Image available on the Internet and included in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.
Lorenzo de Zavala's Proposed Texas Flag

Lorenzo de Zavala’s Proposed Texas Flag. Image available on the Internet and included in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.

Texas has had three official national or state flags during its existence: the 1836 national standard, the 1836 national flag for the naval service, and the 1839 national flag, which became the state flag. Stephen F. Austin designed a proposed Texas flag that was never adopted, and some authorities also claim that Lorenzo de Zavala designed a Republic of Texas flag. Austin designed his flag in New Orleans between December 1835 and January 1836, while he was serving as a commissioner to the United States. The design apparently used sixteen green and white stripes, a red and white English jack in the canton, and a red and white star in the fly. This design was modified with assistance from other commissioners, Branch T. Archer and William H. Wharton. The changes apparently resulted in a flag with thirteen blue and white stripes, a red and white English jack in the canton, and a sun with the head of Washington surrounded by the words “Lux Libertatis” or “Light of Liberty” in the fly. The “Zavala flag” was allegedly adopted in Convention of 1836 at Washington-on-the-Brazos. It is usually portrayed as a blue field with a white star of five points central and with the letters “TEXAS,” one letter at each star point. This description of the flag, however, is inconsistent with the journal entries of the convention for March 3, 1836, and March 12, 1836, which do not indicate that the convention accepted Zavala’s design. In addition, the actual configuration of the flag is unknown because the journal does not describe Zavala’s proposal of March 11, 1836, though it does state that William B. Scates‘s motion to add a “Rainbow and star of five points above the western horizon; and a star of six points sinking below” was accepted. Finally, the journal reflects that Charles Stanfield Taylor, not Zavala, suggested that the letters “TEXAS” be placed around the star. Although several books claim that the “Zavala flag” is the first official Texas flag, the historical record does not support this assertion.

National Flag of Texas

National Flag of Texas. Image available on the Internet and included in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.
Texas Naval Flag

Texas Naval Flag. Image available on the Internet and included in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.

The first official flag, the “National Standard of Texas,” was passed by the Congress of the republic and approved by President Sam Houston on December 10, 1836. It consisted of an azure ground with a large golden star central. This flag, known as David G. Burnet‘s flag, served as the national flag until January 25, 1839, and the war flag from January 25, 1839, to December 29, 1845. President Burnet proposed the national standard, as well as the 1836 national flag for the naval service, in a letter of October 11, 1836, to Congress. The second official flag was the 1836 national flag for the naval service, or war ensign. This was the same flag Burnet adopted for the navy at Harrisburg on April 9, 1836. It was similar to the United States flag and showed thirteen stripes and a blue canton with a single white star. It was passed by Congress and approved by Houston on December 10, 1836, and remained in use until January 25, 1839.

Flag of Texas

Flag of Texas. Image available on the Internet and included in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.
Texas Flag and Seal Designed by Peter Krag

Texas Flag and Seal Designed by Peter Krag. Courtesy of the Texas State Library and Archives Commission. Image available on the Internet and included in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.
William Harris Wharton

William Harris Wharton. Image courtesy of The Texas Underground. Image available on the Internet and included in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.

The Lone Star Flag was adopted by the Texas Congress in 1839: “[T]he national flag of Texas shall consist of a blue perpendicular stripe of the width of one third of the whole length of the flag, with a white star of five points in the centre thereof, and two horizontal stripes of equal breadth, the upper stripe white, the lower red, of the length of two thirds of the whole length of the flag.” Senator William H. Wharton introduced a bill on December 28, 1838, containing the flag’s design, and the bill was referred to a committee consisting of Senator Oliver Jones and two unnamed senators. This committee reported a substitute bill embodying the flag design introduced by Wharton, and the substitute bill was passed by the Congress on January 21, 1839 and approved by President Mirabeau B. Lamar on January 25, 1839. Official art for the Lone Star Flag was drawn by Peter Krag and approved by President Lamar. The actual designer of the Lone Star Flag is unknown, but it could have been Wharton. The Lone Star Flag was the legal national and state flag from January 25, 1839, to September 1, 1879, and the de facto state flag from September 1, 1879, to August 31, 1933. The Lone Star Flag was also the legal national ensign from January 25, 1839, to December 29, 1845. The Sixteenth Legislature promulgated the Revised Civil Statutes of 1879 and provided that “all civil statutes, of a general nature, in force when the Revised Statutes take effect, and which are not included herein, or which are not hereby expressly continued in force, are hereby repealed.” Since the 1879 revised statutes neither included legislation concerning the flag nor expressly continued in force the 1839 flag law, the 1839 law was repealed. Texas therefore had no legal flag from the date of the repeal, September 1, 1879, to the effective date of the 1933 flag act, August 31, 1933. The Mexican National Museum of Artillery has two revolutionary Lone Star flags, one dating from 1836 and the other from 1835 to 1837. Both of these flags display the red stripe over the white stripe, but otherwise resemble the 1839 national flag.

The 1933 description of the flag was extremely detailed and included precise instructions for the design and location of the Lone Star. The colors of the stripes, blood red, azure blue, and white, were said to impart the “lessons of the Flag: bravery, loyalty, and purity.” Despite these specifications, there was no standard reference to define what constituted “blood red” and “azure blue,” and few Texas flags were manufactured in the official proportions (hoist to fly) of two to three. In 1993 the legislature revised the description of the flag: “The state flag consists of a rectangle with a width to length ratio of two to three containing: (1) a blue vertical stripe one-third the entire length of the flag wide, and two equal horizontal stripes, the upper stripe white, the lower red, each two-thirds the entire length of the flag long; and (2) a white, regular five-pointed star in the center of the blue stripe, oriented so that one point faces upward, and of such a size that the diameter of a circle passing through the five points of the star is equal to three-fourths the width of the blue stripe.” The 1993 law stipulates that the red and blue colors of the state flag are the same colors used in the United States flag, the so-called “Old Glory Red” and “Old Glory Blue.” The red and blue colors are specifically defined by the Standard Color Reference of America, a standard textile-industry reference work. The 1993 law specifies that the finial for the state flag should be a lone star or a spearhead, and gives the governor the authority to adopt a governor’s flag. The 1993 law also contains a complete revision of the Texas Flag Code, which was first adopted in 1933.


Texas “1824” Flag for Registered Civil Vessels. Image available on the Internet and included in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.
Texas Pilot Flag

Texas Pilot Flag. Image available on the Internet and included in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.
Texas Revenue Service Flag

Texas Revenue Service Flag. Image available on the Internet and included in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.
Texas Coasting Trader Flag

Texas Coasting Trader Flag. Image available on the Internet and included in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.

In addition to the three national and state flags, Texas has recognized five other official flags: the 1835 flag for registered civil vessels and vessels sailing under letters of marque and reprisal, the 1839 pilot flag, the 1839 revenue service flag, the 1839 coasting trader flag, and the 1985 county sesquicentennial flag. The flag for registered civil vessels and vessels sailing under letters of marque and reprisal was an ensign adopted by the provisional government on November 29, 1835. It consisted of the Mexican flag with “1824” replacing the eagle and signifying loyalty to the Mexican federal Constitution of 1824. This flag disappeared from use after the adoption of the 1836 national standard and the 1836 national flag for the naval service. The revenue service, pilot, and coasting trader flags were auxiliary naval flags authorized by the 1839 act that gave specifications for the Lone Star Flag. Official art for these flags was drawn by Peter Krag. The revenue service flag consisted of a white star on a blue square surrounded by white and red borders, the pilot flag consisted of a white star on a blue stripe with a white stripe above and a red stripe below, and the coasting trader flag consisted of a white star on a vertical blue stripe with swallowtail white and red horizontal stripes. These flags were probably used from January 25, 1839, to December 29, 1845. The pilot flag has been portrayed erroneously at times as the Texas national flag at sea, civil ensign, or merchant flag.

Texas Sesquicentennial Flag for Falls County

Texas Sesquicentennial Flag for Falls County. Image available on theInternet and included in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.

Certainly the most unusual Texas flag is the official county flag for the Texas sesquicentennial, celebrated in 1986. This flag was designed by Mrs. Joydelle G. Wolfram for Falls County and subsequently recognized by the legislature on February 28, 1985, for use by counties. It shows the county’s name, date of formation, and a large white star on a royal blue field, surrounded by two white arcs and 254 gold, red, blue, and green stars. The use of this flag is optional.

Confederate Flag (1861)

National Confederate Flag (1861). Image available on the Internetand included in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.
Army of Northern Virginia Flag

Army of Northern Virginia Flag. Image available on the Internet and included in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.

The Confederate States of America had three principal flag designs during its existence. The first, known as the Stars and Bars, was chosen by the provisional government as the national flag and ensign and was raised over the Capitol in Montgomery, Alabama, on March 4, 1861. Its specifications were “a red field with a white space extending horizontally through the center, and equal in width to one-third the width of the flag. The red space above and below to be the same as the white. The union blue extending down through the white space and stopping at the lower red space. In the center of the union a circle of white stars corresponding to the number with the States in the Confederacy.” The Stars and Bars was never officially adopted by legislation, but served as the Confederate flag for more than two years. Many of the Stars and Bars flags flown in Texas during this period featured unions with a single star surrounded by a circle of stars. Because of the flag’s similarity to the United States flag, it was unsatisfactory for use as a battle flag or regimental flag. The most commonly known Confederate battle flag was the flag used by the Army of Northern Virginia. It was a square having a red ground with a blue saltire bordered with white and emblazoned with white five-pointed stars corresponding in number to that of the Confederate States. Texan and other Confederate soldiers fought under a wide variety of battle flags because the Confederate Army never adopted a single battle flag for use by all troops. In 1906 the United Confederate Veterans designated the battle flag of the Army of Northern Virginia the standard battle flag for use by Confederate veterans related organizations. This decision has unintentionally encouraged the popular misconception that a standard battle flag existed.

National Confederate Flag (1863)

National Confederate Flag (1863). Image available on the Internetand included in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.
National Confederate Flag (1865)

National Confederate Flag (1865). Image available on the Internetand included in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.
Confederate Navy Jack Flag

Confederate Navy Jack Flag. Image available on the Internet and included in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.

The design of the battle flag of the Army of Northern Virginia was also used in the second national flag of the Confederacy, the Stainless Banner. This flag flew from May 1, 1863, to March 4, 1865, and consisted of a white field with the battle flag in the canton. The Confederate Navy shortened the length of the Stainless Banner and authorized its use as the national ensign on May 26, 1863. The Stainless Banner was revised on March 4, 1865, in part because naval officers objected that the flag looked both like a flag of truce and the British White Ensign. The revision added a vertical red stripe to the flag’s fly. The Confederate Navy apparently did not authorize the revised Stainless Banner’s use as the national ensign. The third national flag was short-lived, as the Confederacy surrendered the month after it was adopted. Another Confederate flag that is sometimes displayed in Texas today is a rectangular version of the square battle flag of the Army of Northern Virginia. This flag was the Confederate naval jack as it appeared after May 26, 1863, and was similar to the battle flag issued to the Army of Tennessee in 1864. The Confederate naval jack was used in the design for the reverse of the Texas state seal from August 26, 1961, to June 14, 1991 (seeSEALS OF TEXAS).

Flag of the United States

Flag of the United States. Image available on the Internet and included in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.

The last of the “Six Flags” to fly over Texas is the flag of the United States. Texas entered the Union on December 29, 1845, as the twenty-eighth state. The twenty-seven-star United States flag was first raised in Texas on February 19, 1846, when the state government was organized in Austin. The twenty-eight-star United States flag flew only from July 4, 1846, to July 3, 1847, after which Iowa’s admission to the Union necessitated the addition of another star. In 1915 the legislature declared Texas Independence Day, March 2, as Texas Flag Day. In 1933 the legislature passed a law establishing rules for the proper display of the flag and providing for a pledge to the flag: “Honor the Texas Flag of 1836; I pledge allegiance to thee, Texas, one and indivisible.” The pledge erroneously referred to the 1836 national flag, known as David G. Burnet’s flag, instead of the Lone Star Flag. Senator Searcy Bracewell introduced a bill to correct this error in 1951, but the legislature did not delete the words “of 1836” until 1965. In 1989 the legislature celebrated the sesquicentennial of the Lone Star Flag by incorrectly recognizing Dr. Charles B. Stewart as the flag’s designer and also incorrectly recognizing Thomas BarnettSterling C. RobertsonThomas J. Gazley, and Richard Ellis, Lorenzo de Zavala, and William B. Scates, the 1836 flag committee, as the 1839 committee that approved the design for the Lone Star Flag. The legislature corrected these mistakes in 1992 by acknowledging that the actual designer of the Lone Star Flag is unknown and by recognizing Senator Wharton and Senator Jones for their efforts in adopting the flag.


Devereaux D. Cannon, Jr., Flags of the Confederacy: An Illustrated History (Memphis, Tennessee: St. Lukes Press, 1988). George Pierce Garrison, “Another Texas Flag,” Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association 3 (January 1900). Museo Nacional de Historia, Banderas: Catálogo de la Colección de Banderas (Mexico City: Secretaría de Gobernación, 1990). Whitney Smith, The Flag Book of the United States (New York: Morrow, 1975). Whitney Smith, Flags through the Ages and across the World (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975). Charles A. Spain, Jr., “The Flags and Seals of Texas,” South Texas Law Review 33 (February 1992). Alan K. Sumrall, Battle Flags of Texans in the Confederacy (Austin: Eakin Press, 1994).

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The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Handbook of Texas Online, Charles A. Spain, Jr., “Flags of Texas,” accessed May 14, 2018,

Uploaded on June 12, 2010. Modified on November 28, 2016. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.

12 Odd Facts and Stories About Armadillos

12 Odd Facts and Stories About Armadillos

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Armadillos are small New World mammals often called speed bumps for their habit of crossing roads too slowly, and they carry their own suits of armor around with them. And that’s just the beginning of what makes these animals really, really interesting.

1. The name armadillo came from the Spanish terms meaning “little armored one.” They eat grubs and insects, small reptiles, worms, and sometimes plants. They have a keen sense of smell but poor eyesight, which is common among animals that dig in the dirt.

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2. You can eat armadillo, called “possum on the half-shell,” or, during the Great Depression, “Hoover hogs.” They are said to taste somewhat like pork. Find some recipes for armadillo meat at Eat the Weeds.

Armadillo Species

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3. The giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus) is the biggest species of armadillo, growing up to 39 inches long.

Cliff via Flickr // CC BY-SA 2.0

4. The pink fairy armadillo (Chlamyphorus truncatus) is the smallest of the 20 or so armadillo species, growing to only about six inches long! It is found in central Argentina. These tiny ‘dillos have pink armor and feet, and fluffy white fur. By the way, most armadillos can grow hair, particularly on their undersides, but most have sparse, spiky hair.

Sandstein via Wikimedia Commons // CC BY 3.0

5. The screaming hairy armadillo (Chaetophractus vellerosuscan be foundin Paraguay, Argentina, and Bolivia. As its name might suggest, the animal has long hair growing out from between its armor scales and screams loudly when threatened.

Sandstein via Wikimedia Commons // CC BY 3.0

6. The Brazilian three-banded armadillo (Tolypeutes tricinctus) and the southern three-banded armadillo (Tolypeutes matacus) are the only armadillo species that can roll themselves up in a ball. Both are found in South America. It had to have been one of these species that inspired Rudyard Kipling’s Just So story “The Beginning of the Armadillos,” in which Kipling wrote that armadillos were created when a turtle and a hedgehog taught each other how to defend themselves by growing armor and rolling up in a ball.

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7. The three-banded armadillo was the mascot of the 2014 World Cup tournament in Brazil. Because it curls up in a ball, see?

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8. The nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) is the only species common in the U.S. It ranges throughout the American South, from Texas to the Atlantic and as far north as Nebraska. It is also common in Mexico. Though their name would suggest otherwise, nine-banded armadillos can have anywhere from seven to 11 bands in their armor.

NASA/Ken Thornsley via Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

9. Nine-banded armadillos always give birth to identical quadruplets. That’s a litter of four developed from a single fertilized egg.

leppyone via Wikimedia Commons // CC BY 2.0

10. The armor that an armadillo carries around is tough and then some. In April of this year, Larry McElroy fired a 9mm pistol at an armadillo in his yard in Georgia. The bullet ricocheted off the animal’s armor and into a mobile home belonging to his mother-in-law, 100 yards away. The bullet went into the back of the recliner McElroy’s mother-in-law was sitting in. She was taken to a hospital with minor injuries; the armadillo did not survive the encounter. Then, in July, a man in Cass County, Texas, attempted to shoot an armadillo and ended up shooting himself in the head when the bullet ricocheted back at him. Or at least, those were the stories both shooters told the police.

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11. Armadillos are the only animals besides humans that are affected by Hansen’s disease, also known as leprosy. Nine people in Florida have tested positive for leprosy this year; all report encounters with armadillos. However, it’s not a situation that should cause panic. There are normally 150 to 200 cases in the U.S. every year, and Hansen’s disease is quite treatable if caught early. There are also millions of armadillo encounters, but since 95 percent of people are already immune to leprosy, the odds of catching it from an armadillo are small.

12. Armadillos may be brave and determined, but they aren’t known for their intelligence.

This critter in Jackson, Mississippi, recently found himself in a deep, underfilled water fountain outside City Hall. The videographer was rather far away, so the camera doesn’t stay steady. He manages to get out, but can he stay out?

Texas Facts and Trivia

Texas Facts and Trivia

  1. Texas is popularly known as The Lone Star State.
  2. The Alamo is located in San Antonio. It is where Texas defenders fell to Mexican General Santa Anna and the phrase Remember the Alamo originated. The Alamo is considered the cradle of Texas liberty and the state’s most popular historic site.
  3. The lightning whelk is the official state shell.
  4. Texas is the only state to have the flags of 6 different nations fly over it. They are: Spain, France, Mexico, Republic of Texas, Confederate States, and the United States.
  5. Although six flags have flown over Texas, there have been eight changes of government: Spanish 1519-1685, French 1685-1690, Spanish 1690-1821, Mexican 1821-1836, Republic of Texas 1836-1845, United States 1845-1861, Confederate States 1861-1865, United States 1865-present
  6. The King Ranch in Texas is bigger than the state of Rhode Island.
  7. During the period of July 24-26, 1979, the Tropical Storm Claudette brought 45 inches of rain to an area near Alvin, Texas, contributing to more than $600 million in damages. Claudette produced the United States 24 hour rainfall record of 43 inches.
  8. More wool comes from the state of Texas than any other state in the United States.
  9. Edwards Plateau in west central Texas is the top sheep growing area in the country.
  10. Texas is the only state to enter the United States by treaty instead of territorial annexation.
  11. The state was an independent nation from 1836 to 1845.
  12. Texas boasts the nation’s largest herd of whitetail deer.
  13. A coastal live oak located near Fulton is the oldest tree in the state. The tree has an estimated age of more than 1,500 years.
  14. Sam Houston, arguably the most famous Texan, was actually born in Virginia. Houston served as governor of Tennessee before coming to Texas.
  15. Caddo Lake is the only natural lake in the state.
  16. The first offensive action of the Texas Revolution occurred in Goliad on October 9, 1835 when local colonists captured the fort and town.
  17. On December 20, 1835 the first Declaration of Texas Independence was signed in Goliad and the first flag of Texas Independence was hoisted.
  18. The Hertzberg Circus Museum in San Antonio contains one of the largest assortments of circusana in the world.
  19. The capital city of Austin is located on the Colorado River in south-central Texas. The capitol building is made from Texas pink granite. It served as the capital of the Republic of Texas in 1840-1842.
  20. Austin is considered the live music capital of the world.
  21. Texas is home to Dell and Compaq computers and central Texas is often referred to as the Silicon Valley of the south.
  22. Professional sports teams include the Dallas Cowboys, Dallas Mavericks, Dallas Stars, Houston Astros, Houston Comets, Houston Rockets, San Antonio Spurs, and Texas Rangers.
  23. Dr Pepper was invented in Waco in 1885. The Dublin Dr Pepper, 85 miles west of Waco, still uses pure imperial cane sugar in its product. There is no period after the Dr in Dr Pepper.
  24. The first suspension bridge in the United States was the Waco Bridge. Built in 1870 and still in use today as a pedestrian crossing of the Brazos River.
  25. In 1836 five sites served as temporary capitals of Texas: Washington-on-the-Brazos: Harrisburg: Galveston: Velasco: and Columbia. Sam Houston moved the capital to Houston in 1837. In 1839 the capital was moved to the new town of Austin.
  26. The capitol in Austin opened May 16, 1888. The dome of the building stands seven feet higher than that of the nation’s Capitol in Washington, D.C.
  27. Texas comes from the Hasinai Indian word tejas meaning friends or allies.
  28. The armadillo is the official state mammal.
  29. Texas has the first domed stadium in the country. The structure was built in Houston and opened in April 1965.
  30. The Houston Comets are the only team in the country to win four back-to-back WNBA championships. 1997-2000 Cynthia Cooper remains the only player to win the WNBA Championship MVP.
  31. The worst natural disaster in United States history was caused by a hurricane that hit Galveston in 1900. Over 8000 deaths were recorded.
  32. The first word spoken from the moon on July 20, 1969 was Houston.
  33. Texas’ largest county is Brewster with 6,208 square miles.
  34. Texas possesses three of the top ten most populous cities in the United States. These towns are Houston, Dallas, and San Antonio.
  35. El Paso is closer to Needles, California than it is to Dallas.
  36. Texas includes 267,339 square miles, or 7.4% of the nation’s total area.
  37. The state’s cattle population is estimated to be near 16 million.
  38. More land is farmed in Texas than in any other state.
  39. More species of bats live in Texas than in any other part of the United States.
  40. Laredo is the world’s largest inland port.
  41. Port Lavaca has the world’s longest fishing pier. Originally part of the causeway connecting the two sides of Lavaca Bay, the center span of was destroyed by Hurricane Carla in 1961.
  42. The Tyler Municipal Rose Garden is the world’s largest rose garden. It contains 38,000 rose bushes representing 500 varieties of roses set in a 22-acre garden.
  43. Amarillo has the world’s largest helium well.
  44. The world’s first rodeo was held in Pecos on July 4, 1883.
  45. The Flagship Hotel on Seawall Boulevard in Galveston is the only hotel in North America built entirely over the water.
  46. The Heisman trophy is named for John William Heisman the first full-time coach and athletic director at Rice University in Houston.
  47. Brazoria County has more species of birds than any other comparable area in North America.
  48. The Aransas Wildlife Refuge is the winter home of North America’s only remaining flock of whooping cranes.
  49. Jalapeno pepper jelly originated in Lake Jackson and was first marketed in 1978.